in this video, we're going to introduce co factors. And so some enzymes required what are known as co factors and co. Factors are defined as non protein substances that air required by an enzyme fork, Attallah sis to occur. And so, if there is no co factor in some substances, no enzyme catalysis can take place. And so you can think of co factors as basically little enzyme helpers. They helped the enzyme perform enzyme catalysis. Now, not all enzymes have co factors, but some enzymes do now. An example of co factors includes metal ions, and so some enzymes will not be able to perform Catala sis without metal ions. And metal ions are non protein because they're not made up of amino acids like proteins are. Instead, they're just metal ions. Now, co factors are not consumed in the reaction, which means that at the beginning of the reaction and by the end of the reaction, the co factor remains the same, and co factors. They can actually assist with enzyme catalysis in many different ways, and we'll be able to see an example of how they can assist down below in our image now, a co enzyme sounds a lot like a co factor, and that's because it is a co factor. A co enzyme is a very specific type of co factor. Ah co enzyme is defined as an organic molecule co factor. And so if the co factor is an organic molecule, meaning that it's containing carbon and hydrogen atoms, then we refer to it as a co enzyme. Now, not all co factors are co enzymes, because not all co factors are organic molecules. For example, metal ions are just made up of metal atoms. They're not containing carbon and hydrogen atoms. So it's on Lee the co factors that are organic molecules that we call co enzymes and co enzymes. They tend to be derived from vitamins. So let's take a look at our example down below to get a better understanding of how co factors can assist enzymes with catalysis. And so some co factors can assist and substrate binding. So when we take a look at our image down below, over here on the left hand side noticed that the enzyme is shown here in red and the substrate is shown here in black. But notice that the enzymes active site here is not really tailored for this substrate. And so perhaps the substrate in some scenarios could not bind to the active site because, uh, the active site is not perfectly tailored for the substrate. Um, and if that happens, then the enzyme will not be able to perform ca Tallis ISS. However, if a co factor is present, such as this orange structure right here representing the co factor, then the co factor can come and bind into the active site. And so notice here the co factor is bound to the active site. And that could make the active site better suited and better tailored for the substrate. And so on. Lee, in the presence of the co factor, will the substrate actually be able to bind into the active site? And so once the substrate has bound into the active site, as we have over here on the far right, then enzyme catalysis can proceed and the enzyme can convert the substrate into the product, which is not being shown here. But you can imagine the reaction continuing here as normal. And so this here concludes our introduction to co factors and how they are non protein substances that are required to help enzymes perform Catala, sis. And so we'll be able to get some practice applying these concepts as we move forward in our course. So I'll see you all in our next video.