in this video, we're going to talk about cloning with recumbent DNA. And so scientists tend to create and clone recombinant DNA for genetic experiments. But what is recombinant DNA? Well, recombinant DNA is really just a molecule that contains DNA from two different sources, and these two different sources are often going to be different species. For example, a bacteria and a human and so bacterial plasmids are going to be very, very important for this lesson. And bacterial plasmids are small circular DNA molecules that are replicated independently from the bacteria's or the organism's genome. And these bacterial plasmas, these small circular DNA molecules. They can be used as cloning vectors and cloning vectors are molecules such as plasmids that are capable of carrying a gene of interest, like foreign DNA into a host cell. And so, in our example, down below, we're gonna be talking about creating recombinant DNA plasmas to be used as cloning vectors. And so, in this image, down below notice, over here on the left hand side, we're showing you the bacterial plasmid, which is this circular, uh, small circular DNA molecule found in bacteria. And then we're showing you a gene of interest here, which could be from a different species like, for example, a human. And so this is DNA from two different sources the bacteria and the human, and so we can create a recombinant DNA molecule, and the recombinant DNA molecule is going to be a single molecule that has DNA from two different sources. And in this example, the recombinant D N A. Has DNA from the bacterial plasma, and it also has the gene of interest, which would be from a different species like, for example, a human. And so you have a single molecule that has bacterial DNA and human D N A. A single molecule with DNA from two different sources would be a recombinant DNA molecule, and this recombinant DNA molecule can serve as a cloning vector. And cloning vectors are just, uh, molecules or plasmids that will carry a gene of interest into a host cell. And so this recombinant DNA can be used to carry the gene of interest here into a host cell like bacteria host cells. And so here we have a few different bacteria here that all have the recombinant DNA molecule, and all have the gene of interest And so, in other words, what we're saying here is that cloning vectors are forms of recombinant DNA that carry the foreign DNA into the host cell. And once the foreign d. N A is in the host cell, it can be replicated by the cell when the cell goes to replicate itself. And so this is something that we're going to talk more and more about as we move forward in our course. But for now, this year concludes our brief introduction to cloning with recombinant DNA, and we'll be able to learn more and more about this as we move forward. So I'll see you all in our next video.