Food and Feeding

by Jason Amores Sumpter
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hi in this video will be talking about digestion and the digestive system, the organ system responsible for bringing in food, extracting nutrients from it and getting rid of the waste. Now food is any substance that has nutrients needed by an organism. Toe live. We consider food to be things like pasta, which is chock full of carbohydrates, meat, which has proteins or fats, which can be found in things like dairy products. Now those air all well and good. However, we also need what are known as essential nutrients these air nutrients that we can't synthesize and have to be obtained in the diet. So while we can, for example, make a bunch of amino acids, we can't make all 20 that are used to build proteins. In fact, they're actually eight amino acids that we can't synthesize, and we call these essential amino acids. And in case you're curious and don't worry about memorizing this, these include is a losing, losing licensing Mutthiah Ning phenylalanine three inning veiling and trip to fan and methane in is actually fairly significant and significant in there, since that is going to be the amino acid coded for by the start code on now. It should also be noted in, you know, in case you're curious about these things that infants actually also can't produce history ing this, uh, can lead thio certain infantile diseases that you know, maybe you'll learn about if you go to medical school or something. No vitamins. Our organic compounds that are required in small amounts and are used for a variety of different things, including as co enzymes, which are going to be important parts of enzymes in fact, usually the essential part to carry out whatever reaction it's responsible for. We also need minerals which are inorganic substances required again in just small amounts. Um, however, they're going to be incorporated into proteins, and, uh, you know, the active sites of enzymes, for example, where the reactions take place. And they also can be important components in hormones. Now, minerals also include what we refer to as electrolytes that are gonna be, uh, mineral ions that are super important for maintaining osmotic balance in the body. Because, remember, water follow salutes, and these will also be super important for nerve signals. And, uh, we'll learn more about that in the A section on the nervous system. However, just know that the electrical signals sent through nerves are actually being conducted by the movement of these electrolytes or ions. Lastly, there is also essential fatty acids, and it should be noted that most animals can produce, you know, all the fatty acids that they need. However, there are certain double bonds that we azi humans can't produce. And those are commonly referred thio as omega three and omega six fatty acids. Due to the double bond at the Omega three position and Omega six position. This just has to do with the chemical naming. Um, so, you know, don't worry about trying to memorize any of this. It's just a convention in terms of counting the carbon tale from the end, as opposed thio the beginning. Anyways, omega threes are found in, uh, you know, things like tree nuts. For example. These air often thought of his plant fats. Omega six is are commonly referred to as animal fats, and interestingly, it's been theorized that, uh, issues with obesity can actually be in part due to the ratio of Omega three and Omega six is you have in your diet, and Americans tend to have too many Omega six is not enough. Omega threes or balance is a little out of whack. And, um, you know, you know, America suffers from obesity quite a bit now, if I jump out of the way here, I also want to point out how these vitamins can be used. This is a vitamin called riboflavin because it's got all the flavor, and riboflavin is an essential component of F A D. Yeah, which you can hopefully see. Rival Flavin's structure in this portion of the molecule F A. D is, of course, the essential electron carrier that plays a critical role in the electron transport chain and, of course, cellular respiration production of a teepee. So these essential nutrients are truly essential. We need them to build components that aren't just there for, you know, ah, little added advantage. These build components that are essential to living organisms. Now there's different techniques when it comes to obtaining food. Uh, you know, I've always admired, uh, whales that have this stuff called baleen, which you can see here. It almost looks like a comb. It's these, like bristled, uh, bristled structures that surround their jaws, and you can actually see the baleen in a whale's mouth right there. That's a sperm whale, And what it's doing is it's basically, uh, you know, taking a big bite of ocean water rich in these tiny little organisms called krill. And then it's going to filter those krill through its baleen and basically strain it's food out of the water. This tactic is known as suspension feeding. Technically, it's a type of filter feeding, which is like a filter. Feeding is like a type of suspension feeding. And, um, you know, this is just one of the many ways that organisms can obtain their food. There's also deposit feeding where, for example, a sea cucumber will kind of eat the e. I mean, it's kind of yucky, but the sediment deposited material around it. There is substrate feeding, which is basically when an organism lives on its food source, kind of like a caterpillar on leaf. There's also fluid feeding like insects, sucking your blood or, in a way, less creepy and gross. Example. A nice little hummingbird that eats nectar. Right now we have the dubious title of being mass feeders. Sometimes this is called bulk feeding, and basically we eat large chunks of food, sometimes whole organisms. Basically, we eat big pieces of other things bodies, and that is considered like a mass, and we feed on it. And it's kind of why I like to think of animals is a very crude form of life. You know, we have to just take in this matter from the outside like stick it in our bodies and then process it and waste all this stuff that just comes out of us anyways. And you know, when you compare that to, for example, a plant which you know, absorb sunlight produces its own sugars, much more eloquent way of living. Anyways, that's just my little two cents on that. Let's flip the page.