It is hypothesized that an increase in the number and diversity of noncoding RNA (ncRNA) in the genomes of species has driven the evolution of morphological complexity by way of their influence on gene regulation. Which of the following accurately represents our current understanding of the role that ncRNA is thought to play in gene regulation?
ncRNAs can fine-tune translation by binding with mRNA via complementary base pairing and promote the degradation of the mRNA strand or block its translation.
ncRNAs can re-establish proper patterns of DNA methylation in the genome during gamete formation.
Some ncRNA can promote the formation of heterochromatin, thereby blocking the expression of genes in the tightly coiled region.
Whereas some ncRNA block the transcription and translation of some genes, others have been observed to activate gene expression.