in this video, we're going to focus on the first step of PCR, which is Dina maturation. And so, in the very first step of PCR cycle, heat is going to be used to denature the d N A. And so we're going to heat denature the double stranded DNA in order to convert the D N A into its single stranded form. And each of the single stranded DNA molecules can serve as a template for a new molecule DNA. And so the temperature of the PCR make sure is going to be increased, and it's going to be increased to a temperature of about 95 degrees Celsius, which is very near boiling temperatures and increasing the temperature to 95 degrees Celsius is going to help break all of the hydrogen bonds or the H bonds between complementary base pairs in the DNA and breaking those hydrogen bonds is going to separate the double stranded DNA into its single stranded form. Now it's very important that a special thermo stable DNA preliminaries, such as tack preliminaries, is used in the PCR mixture, and this tack preliminaries is not going to denature at these high temperatures, so it does not denature at high temperatures that are used in PCR, and so the attack preliminaries is able to withstand extremely high temperatures. But it's also able to withstand rapid temperature decreases as well, and we're going to see rapid temperature decreases in the second step of PCR. However, it's also really important to note that although tact preliminaries can withstand high temperatures and can also understand rapid temperature decreases, um, tactile memories does not actually synthesized d n A. Unless it is at an ideal temperature. And so this will be important once we get to the third step. And so, in the very first step of PCR, what we have is Dina maturation, and so within our test tube, we're going to have our d n A. And we'll need to raise the temperature which you can see. These flames here are going to raise the temperature and the heat is going to de nature. So the heat D nature's the complementary DNA strands and denature during the d. N. A really just means that the hydrogen bonds are going to be broken and the D N A is going to be forming its single stranded form. So you can see we have two single stranded DNA molecules here. And so again, within this test tube, we need to ensure that there is a thermo stable, uh, preliminaries. And so you can see over here what we have is our thermo stable preliminaries here, and you can see he's got this name tag that says hello. My name is Tech, because this is tak proliferates and notice. Attack preliminaries has no problems with the heat. The heat never bothered him anyway. And so you can see here that tactile memories is going to be very, very important to have and use during PCR. And so this here concludes our very, uh, our introduction to the first step of PCR DNA saturation. And as we move forward, we'll be able to talk about the 2nd and 3rd steps of PCR. So I'll see you all in our next video.