Transposable Elements and Pseudogenes

by Jason Amores Sumpter
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Now, this next type of non coding DNA is a weird one, something called a transpose herbal element. And these air pieces of DNA that actually behave kind of similar to viruses inserting their DNA in various places in the genome. And they come in two flavors. You can have what are called transpose ons and these air transportable elements that use a DNA intermediate to insert their sequence in your genome. You also have retro transpose ons and these air transpose herbal elements that use an RNA intermediate to insert their sequence in your genome. Now a particular type of retro transpose on. I want to talk about something called a long interspersed nuclear element. Align. And this is a transpose herbal element that special because it actually codes for a reverse transcriptase. Now you might remember that that is an enzyme that does the opposite of transcription. Instead of going from DNA toe RNA, it takes RNA and turns it back into DNA, so this line will use its RNA intermediate and then use reverse transcript. Taste to code that sequence back into the genome as DNA, and you can see an example of what a line would look like right here. You have genes for transposition. That's gonna be the genes responsible for moving this around. And then you have these long terminal repeat. It's kind of just the junk DNA on either end. Now included in the non coding DNA of our genome is DNA that once coded for something but is now inactive. It's lost its functionality, possibly for mutation. And we call these pseudo jeans because they're not really jeans anymore. They're inactive. They've lost their functionality. They were once jeans, but now they're just part of the big mass of non coding DNA in our genome. Now we've also talked about micro RNA before, and technically, this is non protein coding DNA. However, it does code for something it codes for micro RNA, which is involved in RNA interference and is a really important mechanism for you Kerasiotes for the control of gene expression of the regulation of gene expression. Now there's also non coding DNA within genes. We call those sections entrance. We've talked about these introns before, too. That is technically non coding DNA. It just finds itself within a protein coding gene, and you can see right here we have unexamined of a pseudo gene. You see, this is the chimpanzee gene right here. And this is the human version of top. And guess what? Because of this insertion and this deletion. Well, now, this human gene no longer functional, it is now a pseudo gene. So many different types of non coding DNA on Lee, a few types of protein coding DNA. And, of course, the Eukaryotic genome mostly made up of that non coding DNA on Lee, a little portion of it is actually protein and coding. That's all I have for this video. I'll see you guys next time.