Now that we've talked about the conditions that lead water to flow, that is water potential. Let's talk about how water gets from the soil into the asylum right, whereas ultimately it's going to be transported through the plant, so water flows from the soil so soil into the root hairs. So here we have a root hair, and from there it's going to move into the xylem, which is represented as this orange structure in the image. Water is going to move into root hairs via osmosis, but it's going thio thebe. Pressures on it are going to be things we talked about when we talked about water potential, right? So salute potential is going to be the major factor in moving water into, uh, into the root hairs. Now, once it's in the plant, it can actually go through a few different routes to get to this island. There's actually three routes that water can travel. The first we're gonna talk about is the trans membrane route. Basically, remember that all of our you know, cell membranes here are going to have these things called aqua porn's right Those air those channels that allow water to pass through because you might recall, Even though water is small enough to go through the plasma membrane, it doesn't pass through the plasma membrane efficiently enough. Thio have living organisms rely on that alone. They need these aqua porn's to increase the efficiency of water moving through the membrane so the trans membrane route is going to be flow through the aqua porn's and, of course, a little bit directly through the membrane. Uh, however, the majority is going through the aqua por ins, so that is pretty straightforward. Now the other two are a little, um, less straightforward. Shall we say we have the April plastic route, which is going to be flow outside of the plasma membranes of cells, and this is going to be basically, uh, in the spaces between cells and other porous cell walls. We call this region this space outside of the plasma membranes, the a pope last, and you might recall that this area is interrupted by what's known as the cast Sperry. In strip, the Caspian Strip is a waxy layer made of a material called Subaru in, and that is secreted by the end. Oh Durmus. And this is done in order to block off the asylum. So in this image, me jump out of the way here you can see that the a pope last is colored in this light blue color. So everything you see in our sort of diagram showing you the different layers of cells that the water is going to have to travel through to reach this island. All of these light blue regions are the A pope. Last. So let's talk about the cast Berrien Strip for a second, you can see that the cast very in strip blocks off the April, plastered some point. And it does this because it wants to force water, as you can see happening here and here. It wants to force the water into the end of dermal cells. And the reason it wants to do this is that allows the end of dermal cells to act as filters, which means they can control ion flow and concentration. Grady INTs. This is super important for a number of reasons. I mean, for one, you want to make sure that you're not letting in any bad stuff, and also those concentration Grady INTs are going to be literally a matter of life and death. So it's super important that the concentrations of salutes and ions are super super tightly controlled. Now water has thio flow. Uhh or water can also flow through what's known as the Sim plastic route, and this is flow through the site is all of cells. You might remember that plant cells we'll have their site is ALS linked by what are known as plasma Dez Mata. Uh, in fact, you can see plasma. Does mata in these channels between the cells in the image this area, this continuous network of plant cells that are linked by these plasma does Mata. This continuous network of cytoplasm is called the simp last, and it's labeled in this sort of orange color. So we have the April plast in the simp. Last. Those were the two regions that represent two of the routes which water can take. And, of course, if water is flowing through the Sim plastic route, it doesn't need to worry about the cast Berrien Strip. And that's all good because it's moving through cells, which basically means those cells they're going to be able to regulate, uh, solute concentration ion flow, All that good stuff they're going to be in control? No. When water water flows through the asylum, as you can see here without crossing membranes, and it moves due to differences in pressure potential, and we will go over the mechanism of that in just a little bit. But first I want to talk about the water moving through the asylum. First of all, it's not just water. It's what we call xylem sap because it's water with dissolved minerals, nutrients and hormones. I mean, there's, you know, there's a bunch of other junk in the water. Of course, Asylums main job is to transport water up the plant and the flow. Um, is there to transport sugar? Um uh, but other stuff hitches arrived is kind of the basic idea. So the movement of molecules along a pressure ingredients the movement of this xylem sap is known as bulk flow. So if I use the term bulk flow, you know that I'm just talking about the movement of all these molecules in here due to the pressure potential difference. So let me actually go ahead and mark that. Let's say pressure potential is high up here and lo here, get my head out of the way so you can see that. That's why Oh, my gosh, She did it backwards. Sorry. Water wants to lose its potential. So it's gonna be high down there, low up their dirt. And that is our bulk flow of water or xylem sap through the asylum. And with that, let's flip the page.