Ribosomes

by Jason Amores Sumpter
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in this video, we're going to introduce ribosomes. And so sometimes Ribery's OEMs are referred to as non membrane ISS organelles or, in other words, sometimes ribosomes are referred to as organelles that are not made up of membranes. And so that's important to keep in mind because most of the organelles that we're gonna be talking about moving forward are made up of membranes. But ribosomes are not made up of membranes, and so it's important to note that sometimes RAB zones are referred to as non membrane. It's organelles because sometimes your textbooks will refer to them and your professors will refer to them as organelles. But it's important to keep in mind that they're non membrane iss organelles. Now we have mentioned this term ribosomes a few times in our previous lesson videos. But what exactly are these ribosomes? And what do these ribosomes due for a cell? Well, rob zones, you can pretty much think of them as little tiny molecular machines inside of cells that build proteins and ribosomes are found in all living cells. Regardless, if those cells are pro carry attic or eukaryotic or animal or plant cells, it does not matter. Ribosomes are found in all living cells. Now the process that's conducted by ribosomes that builds proteins has a specific name that scientists refer to as translation. And so translation is just the scientific name for the process that's conducted by ribosomes that builds proteins and later in our course will be able to talk a lot more details about this process of translation. But for now, all you guys should know is that rob zones they build proteins by conducting this process called translation. Now it's also important to note that ribosomes they can either be free ribosomes that are free floating in the cytoplasm or the ribosomes can be attached ribosomes that are not free. And instead they're attached to another organ l inside of the cells such as the rough E r or the rough end of plasvic. Ridiculous. Um, which we'll get to talk more about the end of plasma Ridiculous, Um, a little bit later, in our course in a different video. But for now, let's take a look at this image that we have down below to get a better understanding of these Riva zones. So notice right here in the middle what we have is our representation of a eukaryotic animal cell and notice that these little tiny blue circles that we see throughout our referring to ride zones and so notice that there are some ribosomes over here as well all of these tiny little blue circles that you see our ride zones. And so if we zoomed in tow one of these ribosomes like the one that we're zooming into right here in this box we're zooming into this one little ribbon zone, which is what you'll notice is that some of the ribosomes are free ribosomes, as we mentioned up above, which means that they're just free floating in the cytoplasm of the cell and recall that the cytoplasm of the cell is just referring to the space on the inside of the cell. So basically all of the space that you see, uh, in between organelles and inside of the cell membrane that is referring to the cytoplasm. Okay, on DSO, you'll see some of them are free ribosomes and they float in the cytoplasm of the cell. But regardless, if they are free, ribosomes or attached ribosomes ribosomes, their main function is to build proteins, and so what? You'll notice is that this little blue ribbons, um, that we're zooming into is this structure that we see here in blue that it represents the ribs, Um, and notice that it is building this chain of amino acids here in this chain of amino acids represents the protein that is being built so we can label this as the protein. So once again, the right zone, which is here in blue. It's a machine that is building a protein, and the protein here is in red that we see here Now, again, not all of the ribosomes are free rides. Um, some of the ribosomes are attached ribosomes, and they're attached to another organelles such as the rough E r. And so, if we zoom into this circle over here, what you'll notice is that we're showing you the rough E r is this blue structure that surrounds the nucleus. If we're zooming in, the nucleus is represented right here in this image. But it's also over here in this image on surrounding the nucleus. We have this blue structure here, and the blue structure here represents the rough e r, the rough and a plasma particular, and we'll get to talk more about the rough er, remember later in our course, But notice that attached to the rough er we have these tiny little blue dots all of these blue dots that you see here on the rough e r r ribosomes themselves that are specifically attached ride his OEMs. So there are free rhizomes, and there are also attached rhizomes, and they do the same thing of building proteins. But there'll be different in terms of where those proteins end up. The free riders zones. When they make proteins, the proteins end up floating in the cytoplasm. But when the attached ribosomes make proteins, those proteins end up on the inside of the rough E r. Okay. And so once again, we'll get to talk more about this idea that I just mentioned later in our course when we talk more about the rough er But for now, uh, this concludes our introduction to ribosomes and that they are machines that build proteins, and we'll get to apply some of these concepts moving forward in our course. So I'll see you all in our next video