Joints

by Jason Amores Sumpter
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cartilage is this elastic tissue containing collagen proteins. And for some organisms, it's actually going to be the main component of their skeleton. For example, uh, sharks now it's also going to be, um, important component in tendons and ligaments, which are types of connective tissue that, uh, in the case of tendons, link muscle to bone and, in the case of ligament ligaments, link bones together or link bone to bone. And you can see example of that here where we have a tendon connecting this muscle to this bone. And here, where we have a ligament connecting this bone to this bone. Now joints are what we call these connections between bones, and they're gonna actually allow for specific types of movements. Now there's many different types of joints. However, I want to mention to those air ball and socket joints thes gonna be like your hips and shoulders where you basically have a ball that fits into a socket, and it's going to rotate around in there. And what's nice about ball and socket joints, as I'm sure you know with your arm is you can really get a lot of range of motion on that now In contrast, hinge joints limit movement to a single plane, but these were usually able to generate more force and a nice example of a hinge joint. Is this joint we see right here in your leg right now. As you can see inside this joint, we're gonna have some nice cartilage that's going thio Protect those bones from rubbing on top of each other, which would have been which would be rather very, very painful and is actually the cause of some types of arthritis. Now, muscles and bones work together in basically what you can think of as antagonistic pairs and that this is not always the case. But many muscles work together in these antagonistic pairs. So I want to show you one example of how you know muscle and bone come together to produce, you know, different types of movement. So here we have a wonderful example of an antagonistic pair that we're all familiar with, and that is the biceps and the triceps. And you can see that the biceps, when these muscles tense, right when they pull, they're gonna pull these bones closer together, right? That's why we call them extensive er zits a muscle that basically Ben's a limb and pulls it close together. Now these air gonna work in opposition to extend. Sirs, this is the that antagonistic pair. The extensive is the antagonist to the flexor. The extensive er when it contracts is going to straighten and extend a limb. So here, in this case, let me just erase this for a second. You can see that if the triceps contract, if it pulls in like this, it's going to result in pulling the arm straight like that. And that is why we call that an extensive because it extends the limb out and a flexor. It's like you flexing. Think about it that way. All right, That's all I have for this one. I'll see you guys next time.