Functional Groups

by Jason Amores Sumpter
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in this video, we're going to begin our lesson on functional groups now. Functional groups, as their name implies, are really just groups of atoms that are reactive or functional, and they're also commonly found together within biomolecules and so moving forward in our course. When we're talking about different classes of biomolecules, we're going to see lots and lots of functional groups appear. And so it's important to get to know these functional groups pretty well. Now the functional groups are typically going to extend off of the carbon backbone of a molecule. And so notice down below. In our image, we're going to represent the carbon backbones of the molecules by using these squiggly lines throughout, which again represent the carbon backbone of the rest of the molecule. And so the functional group is always going to be extending off of some type of carbon backbone. Now, throughout all of biology, there are a lot of different types of functional groups, however, and a typical biology course like yours, you're likely only going to need to know seven functional groups that are pretty common in biology. And so notice down below. In our table we have these seven functional groups for you all to know. And so the very first functional group that you all should know is the Meth Aled Group. And the Method Group is just when you have a carbon atom branching off of a carbon backbone and this carbon atom is covertly attached to three other hydrogen atoms. And so that's it for the Method group over here. And typically these metal groups we'll see is that they're gonna be found in lipids and things like that. So we'll be able to see those a little bit later. In our course Now, the second functional group that you all should know is the hydroxyl group and the hydroxyl group, as you can kind of see with its name. It has the oxy in here for an oxygen atom, and it has the hydro in here for the hydrogen atom, and that's exactly what it is. The hydroxyl group is going to have an oxygen atom branching off of a chain that's also bound to a hydrogen atom, and so on. O H group, like what you see here, is going to represent the hydroxyl group and we'll see hydroxyl groups and lots of different types of molecules, including carbohydrates. Now, over here, what we have is the third class of functional group, or the third functional group, and that is the Carbonnel Group. And the Carbonnel Group is whenever you have a carbon atom that is double bonded has a double bond to an oxygen atom. And so whenever you have a carbon atom double bonded to an oxygen atom, that is a carbonnel group. And so once again, these air fairly common throughout different types of biomolecules. Now, over here, the fourth functional group that we have here is going to be the car box. A little group now admit at first glance, the Carbonnel and the car boxful sound very, very similar. However, the car box all what can help you remember is that boxes like this box over here are used to store things and really the car box Eliza combination of the hydroxy over and the Carbonnel Group as well. And so it's going to be ah, combination of both. So notice that their Carbonnel group is present here in the car box because there's a carbon double bonded to an oxygen, just like what we saw over here. But in addition to the Carbonnel group, there's also a hydroxyl group over here within this car boxing group, and so there's an O H over here as well. And so when you see a carbon double bonded to an oxygen and then that same carbon is bonded to ah hydroxy group together, we refer to this entire thing as a car boxful group. And so the fifth functional group that we have down below here is going to be the amino group. And so the amino group you can think has this n and really that's representing the nitrogen atom that is found within the amino groups. And so this is an example of an amino group. Now, the six functional group that we have here is going to be the phosphate group, and the phosphate group looks pretty complex here. However, it's pretty easily identifiable because it's the only one of the seven that has a phosphorus Adam like what we see here. And so this is it for the phosphate group, and once again we'll see these functional groups throughout many different types of biomolecules moving forward in our course and then the seventh and final functional Group that you all should be aware of is the Salt Hydro group. And so the Salt Hydro Group, as its name implies, with the soft here, it's going to have a a sulfur atom on the hydra prefix here is gonna have a hydrogen atom, and that's exactly what the soft hydro group is. A sulfur and hydrogen atom, just like what we see here. And so these are the seven functional groups that would be good to commit to memory because moving forward in our course, we're going to be able to refer to all of these different functional groups now, some of them you might need to commit to memory in terms of the structures, but others you might need to commit to memory just in terms of being able toe, identify or recognize them. For example, the phosphate group might be one that you would just need to identify and recognize, but you'll have to ask your professor toe figure out exactly which functional groups, uh, they want you to be aware of. Now this here concludes our introduction to functional groups, and we'll be able to get some practice applying the concepts that we've learned in our next few videos. So I'll see you all there