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in this video, we're going to begin our lesson on the element carbon now of all of the bulk elements which recall from our previous lesson, videos are carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorous and sulfur or chin ups. If we exclude water, then it's actually the element carbon that is the most abundant element and living systems. And so that goes to show how important the element carbon is to living things. Now. Carbon is the main component of organic molecules, and really, there are four classes of organic molecules that we're going to talk about moving forward in our course in separate videos. And those four classes of organic molecules are carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic acids and lipids. And once again, carbon is the main component of these molecules. Now the terms organic molecules are really just referring to any molecule with co violently linked carbon and hydrogen Adams. And so if the molecule contains covertly linked carbon and hydrogen atoms at some point within the molecule, then we refer to it as an organic molecule. Now the term hydrocarbons, on the other hand, as its name implies, are organic molecules themselves. That air on Lee, made up of carbon and hydrogen atoms, and so they contain no other elements. Again, Hydrocarbons shows that they Onley have hydrogen and carbons, whereas organic molecules that are not hydrocarbons, um, they can have other types of atoms. So just to get a better feel for this, let's take a look at our example down below, which is asking us to circle the organic molecules and green and then highlight the hydrocarbons and yellow. And so when we take a look at these structures that we have down below notice that this molecule over here has a carbon co violently bound to ah, hydrogen, so that makes it an organic molecule. So we'll go ahead and circle this one in green right here, then noticed This one over here has a non oxygen bonded to hydrogen, and this is a water molecule. But water molecules are not organic molecules because they don't have Covili linked carbon and hydrogen atoms. So this is not going to be an organic molecule. And notice this over here is CEO to or carbon dioxide and once again, CEO to it does not have covertly linked carbon and hydrogen atoms. So this is not going to be an organic molecule. Now notice that this one over here does have carbon and hydrogen co violently linked together. So that makes this an organic molecule weaken. Circle it in green. And then last but not least over here notice that this one also has carbon and hydrogen bound. And so that also makes it an organic molecule. We could go ahead and circle. So now, to identify the hydrocarbons, the hydrocarbons are going to be organic molecules that air on Lee made of carbon and hydrogen atoms. So if we take a look at option A over here, notice that this is methane, which is on Lee made up of carbon and hydrogen atoms. So that makes this a hydrocarbon. And so we could go ahead and highlighted in yellow. And really the same goes for option D. Over here it is on Lee containing carbon and hydrogen atoms. So once again, that makes this a hydrocarbon as well. But then noticed that this last one over here has an oxygen atom over here. And so it is not on Lee made up of carbon and hydrogen atoms if it has an oxygen in it. And so this one is an organic molecule, but it is not. Ah, hydrocarbon. And so, Aziz, we see here, This is the correct answer to this example. And so this year concludes our introduction to Carbon. And we'll get to talk a little bit more about the element carbon in our next lesson video, so I'll see you all there.
Organic molecules are defined as chemical compounds that contain:
b) Carbon & Oxygen.
c) Carbon & Nitrogen.
d) Carbon & Hydrogen.
Carbon & Oxygen.
Carbon & Nitrogen.
Carbon & Hydrogen.
Carbon is an Excellent Building Block
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so the element carbon is actually an excellent building block. And so in this video, we're going to focus on that idea now. Carbons ability to form a total of four co Vaillant bonds really is what makes it such a flexible atomic building block for building a variety of different types of molecules. And so the carbon backbones of organic molecules such as carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic acids or lipids can actually very in four different ways that we have listed down below right here. And those are in the length of the carbon backbone, the position of double bonds within the carbon backbone, the branch points of the carbon backbone and the carbon backbone being in either a linear form or a ring form. And so, if we take a look at our example image down below, we could take a look at the variations of carbon backbones. And so over here in the first image, what we're showing you is how number one, which, of course, corresponds with number one up above eyes that the length of carbon backbones are capable of changing. And so notice that this first molecule over here has two carbons and its carbon backbone, whereas this molecule over here has three carbon atoms in its backbone. And so you'll see different molecules throughout that have different lengths of the carbon backbone. And so that's the first characteristic of the carbon backbones. Now, the second one are the positions of double bonds within the carbon backbone. So notice that this molecule over here has a double bond between the first two carbons and the carbon backbone, whereas this molecule over here has a double bond between the second and the third carbon atoms in the carbon backbone. And so the position of the double bond can vary. Now, the third characteristic here of carbon backbones are the branch points. And so, of course, you can have a linear carbon backbone that does not have any branch points. But notice this molecule over here actually has a carbon backbone and another backbone that is branching off of it. And so here we have a branched carbon backbone. Now, the fourth and final characteristic here are the ring forms. And so, of course, we've seen examples of the carbon backbone being in a linear form like all of these, but the ones that you see down below, Uh, show that the carbon backbone can be in a ring form as we see over here and over here, and notice that the ring form can also have double bonds within it as well. And so this year just goes to show how a lot of the molecules that we're going to talk about moving forward, they're going to be built using carbon as the backbone and carbon is a really useful atomic building block because it can be built in so many different fashions as we see right here. And that's really the main take away here of this video. And so that concludes our lesson on how carbon is such an excellent building block, and we'll be able to see these concepts applied as we move forward throughout our course. So I'll see you all in our next video
Additional resources for Carbon
PRACTICE PROBLEMS AND ACTIVITIES (5)
- Organic chemistry is currently defined as a. the study of compounds made only by living cells. b. the study of...
- VISUAL SKILLS Visualize the structural formula of each of the following hydrocarbons. Which hydrocarbon has a ...
- VISUAL SKILLS Identify the asymmetric carbon in this molecule:
- VISUAL SKILLS Which of the molecules shown in question 5 has an asymmetric carbon? Which carbon is asymmetric?...
- The diversity of life is staggering. Yet the molecular logic of life is simple and elegant: Small molecules co...