by Jason Amores Sumpter
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in this video, we're going to briefly discuss primates, which includes organisms such as ourselves and some of our more closely related organisms such as the chimpanzees. And so primates are really just a group of mammals that are characterized by very specific features such as large brains and sophisticated visual systems. And in fact in the back of our heads, there's a region of our brain called the occipital lobe, which controls our complex visual systems. Now, primates are also uh characterized by features such as having good parental care, meaning that they take good care of their offspring, and they are also characterized by having complex social behaviors. Now, some primates have opposable thumbs, which is really just a non digit fingers such as our thumb that is going to allow for grasping in the utilization of tools as well as fine motor skills. And so a fully opposable thumb is one in which the thumb is able to touch the front of the fingertips for each of the four digits. And so humans have fully opposable thumbs, but so do gorillas. And chimpanzees also have opposable thumbs as well now, which will notice is that the given uh it does have this thumb as you see here, however, it is distant from the fingertips uh is pretty great in comparison to the chimpanzee gorilla and homo SAPIEN. Uh And again, the homo SAPIEN is the human hand. And so what you'll notice is that because there's such a great distance here, uh they do not have fully opposable thumbs that allow them to touch their thumb to the front of their fingertips. And what you'll notice is the tar sierra over here is also going to have more primitive like features where it is not going to have a fully opposable thumb. Now in general, these primates can be broken up into two major groups and those two major groups are the pro simians and the anthropoid, or the simians. Now the route, Pro and pro simeon is a route that means before. And so pro simians are going to be a group of primates that are more similar to early primates and that's where the pro comes into play again, Pro means before. So you can think early or you know earlier primates and uh the pro simians include lemurs and lorises and also the tar Sears. And so notice down below, we're showing you this image of a lemur which again is a prosimian and it is going to have features that are more similar to early primates. Now, the other major group of the primates are the anthropoid or the simians and these are going to be bigger brained primates that are going to include monkeys and apes and humans and chimpanzees. And so notice down below, we're showing you this image of these chimpanzees that are showing these complex social behaviors. And so those are going to be an example of the arthur points or the simians. Now, these are three points or simians can be further grouped into what are known as hominids. And so hominids can be defined as these are three points uh and the hominids are also sometimes called great ace. And so the hominids include gorillas, chimpanzees, bonobos, humans, and orangutans. And so if we take a look at this image down below, which you'll notice is we're showing you the skeletal structure of these different primates and we can use this image to introduce this term bipedal is um and so the term bipedal isM refers to the ability to walk only on the two hind limbs. And so basically it's saying the ability to walk on two ft, that is what bipedal ism is. So, humans are fully bipedal as adults and uh which you'll notice is that many of the great apes are actually not fully bipedal. And so the great apes here are going to include humans, but humans are the only ones that are fully bipedal. They're the only ones that can walk on two ft predominantly. Now the chimpanzees, gorillas and orangutans, they are great apes, however, which you'll notice is that they can use their hands and they tend to use their hands for a lot of the motions and movement. Uh and a lot of their arms. Uh you can see the bone structure for their arms are much longer and very extended and their posture is bent so that they can more conveniently use their hands in addition to their feet in order to move around. Now the given on the other hand over here is not actually a great ape. It is an arthur point, but it is not a hominid. And so the gibbon here also has the long extended uh skeletal structure in its arms. And so the gibbon is going uh to walk more using all four of its limbs, so it is not going to display that bipedal ism. And so this here concludes our brief introduction to some of the features of primates and some of the groups of these primates. And I'll see you all in our next video.