Introduction to Translation

by Jason Amores Sumpter
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in this video, we're going to begin our introduction to translation and so recall from our previous lesson videos. That translation is the process that builds proteins by using the encoded messages of M R N A. Or messenger RNA. Now, in the process of translation, thes structures called ribosomes and transfer RNAs, or T Arnas, are going to be very, very important. And so Ribery's owns are going to be very complex structures made of proteins and ribosomes. Oh, Arna or are Arna and these rivals owns these complex structures. They're going to be the main structure that's important for building proteins once again, and therefore it's the main protein that's important for performing translation. Now, throughout the process of translation building the protein. Uh, these ribosomes rely on these transfer RNAs or these t Arnas for short. And so the transfer Arnas are going to be our DNA structures themselves, but they're not going to be translated into a protein. Instead, the transfer or T Arnas are going to be important for carrying or transferring. Ah, me no acids to the ribosomes during translation. And so they're pretty much bringing amino acids to the ribosomes. Now the tea Arnas are going to contain anti co dons. And so the antique Oden's are going to pair with the Marna Cottons during translation. And so this pairing of the antique Oden's with the code Aiden's is what's going to specify one amino acid that's associated with the tea Arna anti code on with one m R and a coat on. And so we'll be able to talk Mawr details about this process as we move forward through our course Now. One thing to note about these tiara is is that they can really come into states, one of two states. The first state is the charged state. The charge trn a Now the charge here. This term charge has nothing to do with the electrical charge, and so the tiara is do not actually have an electrical charge. Instead, this term charges referring to something different other than a positive or negative electrical charge. Charge tr nas r t Arnas that are attached to an amino acid and that is really it has nothing to do with the electrical charge, positive or negative. So charged T Arnas are the attached R T Arnas that are actually attached to an amino acid now discharged. T. Arnas, on the other hand, again has nothing to do with the electrical charge. Positive or negative, Instead discharged. Tr nas air the opposite of charged T Arnas charged Tierney's are attached to an amino acid discharged. Tierney's are not attached to an amino acid, and so we'll be able to see this down below in our image. Now, in our example image down below, we're showing you the different variations of transfer Arnie's or tyrannies during translation. Over here, over here, on this side, what we're showing you is just the process of translation. Taking the encoded messages of RNA on translation is the process of using those encoded messages of Arna to build a protein. And, of course, the process of translation relies heavily on the ride zone, which is gonna be the main structure responsible for translation. And of course, the tr Nas and the tr Nas air going to be important for bringing amino acids to the rival zone. And again we'll talk more and more about the details of translation as we move forward through our course. This is just the introduction. And so taking a look at the tiara over here, which will notice about the tr Nay. The transfer RNA is that it is a long RNA molecule and it is going to be attached to an amino acid. And when it is attached to an amino acid, uh, it is referred to as a charged Trn A And so the amino acid in this image is being represented by this blue circle, so that would be the amino acid. Now the discharge Trn A is not going to be attached to an amino acid. You can see the amino acid attachment site is here, but there is no amino acid here and so because there's no amino acid here, it makes this over here a discharge Trn and not attached to an amino acids. Now again, the TR Nas themselves are going to have antique Oden's three nucleotide sequences that pair with the code ons on the Marne A and so here. What we have is the anti code on on the T r. Ney and notice that the anti code on on the tiara is pairing with this code on here on the mRNA and so that is going to continue to occur throughout the process of translation, and that is what is going to help specify the process of translation. And again, we'll talk. Mawr details all of these details and reveal them, um, as we move forward through our course. But one thing to keep in mind here is that once again, translation is going to build proteins using the encoded messages of M R N. A. Is going to rely heavily on ribosomes and transfer Arnas or T Arnas. And so we'll talk Maura about translation as we move forward in our course, so I'll see you all in our next video.