Taxonomy and Phylogeny

by Jason Amores Sumpter
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Hello, everyone, In this lesson, we're going to discuss taxonomy and we're going to begin our discussion on file a genie. Okay, so we've all pretty much heard of taxonomic groups or taxonomy before in general. Basic bio. But let's just go over it one more time. Taxonomy is going to be the science of defining, categorizing, classifying groups of organisms based on shared characteristics that they have and their relatedness. So I want to write and relatedness because that's very important, because a lot of the work that we do now on organisms is that we look at their genetic code. We look at their evolution, and we try to better classify organisms based on how they evolve and how related they are to one another, and not just because of their shared characteristics, because organisms can have very similar looking characteristics and not be related to one another whatsoever. So we're trying mawr to focus on related nous, which is going to tie into our discussion on file a genie. But let's just go over taxonomy because we still do use taxonomy. Ah, lot, just not as much anymore. Basically, it's utilized for naming organisms and naming geniuses and families and species and things like that. So this is gonna be an overview or generalized view of what we call the kind of like Tree of life or the organization off life. So all living things on our planet, you know, us humans. We gotta categorize things. We've got to give everything a name. So we have. And this is going to be the naming system that we use for all the different organisms on our planet. So if you're wondering taxonomy, the word taxonomy comes from the two Greek words. The first word is taxes, which is going to mean the arrangement or organization off something. And then no, Mia is going to mean methods. So the arrangement method off organisms. So that is going to be what we're talking about with taxonomy. Now file a genetics and cledus ticks are going to be how organisms are related, and this is going to tie into this topic a lot. So let's look at these. We have domains, kingdoms, phylum, class, order, family, genus and species. I know you've all probably heard of genus and species before, but all of these other ones are just as important. Now just so you guys know the most inclusive is going to be the domains and the least inclusive is going to be the species. What do I mean by that? Most inclusive means there are mawr organisms in domains than there are in species, because domains are going to be a very wide, overarching group of life. In fact, there are only three domains off life, and this is going to be based on cell type, the type of cell that an organism has. So we're going to have Arcadia bacteria and we're going to have you, Kariya. Now all the organisms that Aaron you carry A are going to be what they're going to be. You carry outs, We belong to this particular domain. But so do millions of other organisms cats, dogs, trees. Anything that is a eukaryotic organism is going to be in this domain. There are going to be so many organisms in domains because they're the largest, overarching, most inclusive group. So these two domains, which are also very, very large RKO and bacteria are both going to be pro Kerasiotes. Bacteria are going to be single celled organisms that we commonly think about that they're going to be found All of our our bodies throughout the environment and soil and dirt and things like that. And they're single celled, pro carry attic organisms just going about their life. Their million different types of them and then RKO are also going to be pro carry attic single celled organisms. But they're generally going to be more extreme environment organisms that live an extremely hot climates. Salty climates, acidic climates there, commonly called extremophiles because they live in very extreme types of environments and they have unique cellular structure to deal with this. So those are the three domains, the largest groups of life. And as you go down and down and down the taxonomic categories, you get smaller and smaller groups of organisms. So you have a domain and then you have a kingdom. Within that domain may be the plant I kingdom inside of the you carry, you carry a domain. So the plant I kingdom inside of the you carry a domain is gonna hold all of the plants and then you go into the phylum and then into the class in order family, genus and species. Now genus and species is what you're normally going to hear when you hear the scientific name often organism. The scientific name of an organism is genus and species. Now you're probably going to need to know this. Well, you're definitely going to need to know this, and I want you all to know how to write the scientific name off an organism. So, like I just said, first it's gonna be genus, and then it's going to be species. Now be careful whenever you do the genus or species of an organism. If you're writing it on the computer, it's always a talus sized, and if you are writing it hand written, most teachers don't really care. But the correct way to write it is you underline it. Okay, so the genus always has to be capitalized. So this is capitalized in this species is lower case. I don't know why that's just the way it ISS, so they're either italicized or underlined, and the geniuses capitalized and the species is lower case. This is very important for all of you who are going thio into research or taxonomy or file a genie or the naming of organisms. It's very important to know. So what's a great example off a a scientific name of something. Well, what about our scientific name? We have homo, that's our genus. And we have SAPIENs. That's our species. And you can see that I have capitalized Homo, lower case SAPIENs and then to be correct, I would underline it. Another great example is Phyllis Caddis. Any idea what this one is? That's a domesticated cat. So all living organisms are going to have scientific name and that's gonna be there genus and their species. Now you guys are probably going to have to know the order off the different tax on the taxonomic groups of life. So there is a saying for this. If you wanted to know so domain Kingdom phylum, class, order, family, genus species You will have to know that order. So the most common one is going to be Dear King Philip, let me write this. Deer King Philip came over four good soup. Now that's the non vulgar version which doesn't stick a swell as the vulgar version. I don't care which one you use, but it could be dear King Philip came over for good soup or, as many people say, dear King Philip came over for good sex. I don't care which one you use, which everyone helps You remember for the test, you go for it. Okay, so now we're going to go down and we're going to talk a little bit about philology. This is just a very short introduction to file a genie. So Systematics is the study of the relationships of organisms. Taxonomy was the study of classifications of organisms and file A genie is the study of the evolutionary relationships between organisms. This is a very important field right now. It is how we are organizing all of the different organisms that we know of on our planet and that we're continuing to discover. And whenever we determine or attempt to determine the evolutionary relationships between organisms, we're going to make a file a genetic tree, which is going to be a branching diagram showing the inferred evolutionary relationships between species inferred Here is a very important word. Please understand that file a genie's file A genetic trees are not set in stone. The more we learn about genetics, the more we learn about cell bio evolutionary biology. The more we learn over time, we realized that we don't actually know how all of these organisms evolved. We're just hypothesizing upon this so file a genetic trees air never set in stone. They are always estimates. They are always hypotheses, but they better help us understand the world around us. This is a great example of a really cool looking circular file. A genie. Not all of them are gonna be circular because these air kind of hard to read this is gonna be I file a genie of just some very big groups in all of the life on our planet. But we will talk more about the more condensed versions, the smaller versions of philology knees, and we'll talk about the different ways you might see file a genetic trees in our coming lessons. Okay, everyone, let's go on to our next topic.