Denatured Proteins & Chaperones

by Jason Amores Sumpter
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in this video, we're going to introduce denatured proteins and chaperones, and so it's important for you. All to note is that a protein structure and shape is actually really critical for its proper function. And so what this means is that a protein will not be able to properly function or properly work if it loses or changes its structure and shape. And so it's really the structure and shape that dictates the proteins function. And this idea leads us directly to the term de natured protein. And that is because a de natured protein is a protein that is non functional, a non functional protein that has altered its shape and so once again, by altering or changing the shape of a protein that will change its function and make it non functional. Now, denatured proteins can result from changes to the environment, and so examples of changes in the environment that could lead to a denatured protein include examples such as changes in the pH of the solution, Uh, changes in the temperature of the environment or changes in the salt concentration of the environment as well. All of these things can lead to the change of a protein's shape and therefore lead to a non functional protein, a denatured protein. Now, on the other hand, proteins that have lost their shape can sometimes regain their original shape by the help of what are known as chaperone proteins. And so chaperone proteins are proteins themselves that help other proteins reform their original shapes or re nature, if you will. And so let's take a look at our example image down below to get a better understanding of denatured proteins and chaperone proteins, and so what you'll need to notices over here on the left hand side. We're starting with a functional protein, which is this, uh, shape right here. This red structured and what's important to note is that it has a very, very specific shape. However, if the functional protein is, uh, heated, if the temperature changes in the environment, recall that the temperature is just one of the changes in the environment that can cause a functional protein to de nature and lose its shape. And so if we heat up the protein that can change the shape of the protein and so notice here, the protein has changed its shape in comparison to the functional form of the protein. And so what this means is, of course, we have a de natured protein here that has lost its shape and therefore lost its function. It will no longer work when it's Lou. When it's lost its shape, however, proteins can regain their shapes with the help of other proteins that we call chaperone proteins. And so the structure that you see here throughout is referring to the chaperone protein. And so the chaperone protein can take the denatured protein and basically help it reform its original structure. And so once the protein has regained its original shape and structure, it becomes a functional protein once again. And so chaperone proteins are good for cells. Toe have to make sure that they're proteins are properly folded. And so this year concludes our introduction to denatured proteins and chaperones, and we'll be able to get a little bit of practice applying these concepts as we move forward in our core. So I'll see you all in our next video