Embryonic Plant Development

by Jason Amores Sumpter
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just like in animals After fertilization, the plants I go will undergo cell divisions. But here's where things get a little different. This I goat undergoes a symmetric cell divisions, meaning that the two resulting daughter cells don't get the same amount of cytoplasm and other stuff. And so they are different sizes, and we can see that happening in this image. So first we have our zygote, and then it divides unevenly, resulting in this to sell stage right here. And you can see that one is about twice the size of the other. Well, we call these cells the a pickle cell and the basal cell. And I bet you can guess why thinking back to that a pickle basil axis? Well, it turns out that the A pickle cell actually is what forms the plant itself. The basal cell forms what's known as the suspense, sir, which contributes to the support of structures of the embryo. Kind of like the placenta in mammals. So you could almost think of this parallel as like the inner cell mass versus the trophy blast. Now Onley one cell in the suspense er contributes to the plant embryo, just one so We can basically just say that the basal cell forms, um, the basal cell forms support structures and the A pickle sell forms the plant embryo. Of course, there's that one cell exception, but it's really not a big deal. So you know, it's okay for us to just make those generalities. In addition, thio these a pickle basil divisions. There are also radial divisions, so you can see going along this way, there are divisions in an outward fashion. See, we have these cells here dividing outward to form this pattern that is an example of a radial division dividing outward instead of just up and down. Now, in addition to these structures we've talked about the embryonic plant has some structures that we haven't given names too. Uh, namely, we have the Kotil Aidan's, which are basically embryonic leaves, and you can see them right here. The hypo coddle, which is basically the embryonic stem, could see that labeled right here. And there is thes shoot, which is made up of the hyper Kotal and the Kotil A dons. So this is our shoot, and then we have our route, which is the underground portion of the plant that forms from what's known as the radical and just you go back to our image up here, you can see that these two images are actually kind of like zoomed in pictures that air specifically looking at the the top of this developing embryo. But we can see the full image here right before we were kind of cutting it off like this and like this. But you can see that there's actually this long a string of cells coming off the bottom that's gonna form those support structures, whereas these colored cells on top will actually form the embryonic plant. Here we have what's known as the heart shape and here the torpedo and these air just names given to the particular shape that the developing plant embryo takes during the course of its development. Now let's get back to the merest M, which, if you recall the merest M, is where those plants stem cells are located, which can give rise to the various structures of the plant like the roots, the leaves, new stocks, what have you So before I said that there were more there was more than one mayor stem and that we'd get Thio What those specific mayor stems are. Well, now we're getting to it. So there is the shoot a pickle, merest m Sometimes abbreviated s am like that and you can see it located right here, denoted by this red dot You can see where it arises from during development. Right here. There's also the route a pickle mary stem, which you can see is highlighted in purple and is also present during development here and here. So the shoot a pickle merest, um, gives rise to Oregon's like flowers and leaves the route a pickle. Merest M gives rise to the roots as the name implies and marry stems. Ensure that plants can have lifelong growth, which is very important because many plants continue to grow throughout their entire lives. All right, let's turn the page.