Hi. In this video, we're going to talk about protests, which are essentially the category of eukaryotes that includes everything that isn't a plant and animal or fungus. So it's kind of like a biological grab bag or potpourri. It's a real mixture. And as you'll see, there aren't really a lot of unifying themes that Thai protests together. So let's begin our discussion by talking about eukaryotic cells. Right? Protests? Are you Kerasiotes? So what are you, Kerasiotes? Well, you might recall that you Kerasiotes have, uh, nucleus. They have membrane bound organelles and he's a site of skeletons. Now, the unifying theme of you Karatz, if you will, is the nucleus. And let's use a little fancy terminology here. The sin apa morphy, right? The derived character that is shared between the organisms in ACL aid. Um, the sin apa morphy that unifies eukaryotes is the nucleus right now you carry. It's also tend to be much larger than pro carry outs right here. We've got some a little, uh, pro carry Ah, tick cells. Here we have our eukaryotic cells or eukaryotic cell. I should say one cell and you carry out tends to be a lot larger. It's got this nucleus. You could see all these membrane bound organelles. We have mitochondria here. Uh, these air Golgi apparatus. Right. Um, there's our, uh, century ALS and, you know, here we're really showing it Same same thing, you know, Now you can see the rough er and the smooth E r. And if you want Thio, review these concepts, go back and check out the video on cells. Uh, before we dive into protests. I also want to revisit the idea of endo symbiotic theory. And that is because endo symbiotic theory is actually gonna play into protests in kind of a unique and pretty darn cool way. So if you recall, uh, the basic idea of endo symbiotic theory, it is that as pro carry attic cells which were the first form of cells, got bigger, um, they you know, they faced this problem the surface to volume surface area to volume ratio issue that cells and organisms in general run into as they get larger. And so you know these in folding these membrane in fold ings appeared thio help counter act, um the or thio help maintain rather a surface area to volume ratio. that was ideal for the organism. Eventually this becomes the nucleus and the end of membrane system, and ultimately, now we're going to get to the end of symbiotic part. Ultimately, what's gonna happen is these, uh, thes cells air going to engulf Prodi a bacterium. And it's worth noting that a lot of these single celled organisms, you know, that act as hunters will literally just engulf their prey like this. But instead of digesting this bacteria, what happened is these two organisms essentially became reliant on each other. They formed the symbiotic relationship where they were helping each other. Uh, you know, for example, the larger cell that engulfed the pro dio bacterium's, like offering protection, probably feeding nutrients to the Prodi, a bacterium. And in exchange the pro dio bacterium is going thio generate a bunch of ATP by, you know, oxidative phosphor relations. So eventually these pro dio bacterium through, uh, you know what is called sim biogenesis? Write that down. So, through sim biogenesis, these pro dio bacterium that were engulfed by pro carry attic cells will eventually become a eukaryotic cell, and those proteome bacterium are going to become mitochondria. There's a lot of evidence for this. We're not really gonna cover it now. Um, other than saying that, uh, like pro carry outs which have a double membrane, mitochondria have a double membrane, which is unlike other membrane bound organelles. And the reason I mention that will become significant later. So in addition to this, um, there was also another Sim biogenesis event where cyanobacteria, um, were engulfed and eventually became chloroplasts. Right. So thes are both instances of Sim biogenesis. We have Prodi, a bacterium becoming mitochondria and cyanobacteria becoming horror blasts. Now with that, let's flip the page and talk about how protests experience some unique forms of endo symbiosis.