Protist Cells 2

by Jason Amores Sumpter
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while the organisms of the plant I lineage, uh, have chloroplasts as a result of what we'll call primary Endo symbiosis. Meaning, uh, they engulfed the cyanobacteria mom, And that turned into the chloroplast. There are lineages of protests that actually have these quadruple membrane chloroplasts. Right? So remember that bacteria have that double membrane structure to them. Right? So chloroplasts, like mitochondria, have that double membrane. But in certain protests that have, uh, chloroplasts present, they have this quadruple membrane chloroplast. And people take this as evidence of what's called secondary endo symbiosis. So basically, um, this organism, this eukaryotic cell would engulf a photosynthetic. You carry out IQ sell like we see happening here, it's going to engulf it. And then this, uh, photosynthetic eukaryotic cell will eventually become this quadruple membrane chloroplast structure. And this will account for the origin of chloroplasts in other eukaryotic lineages outside the plant. I lineage within plant I It is what we see going on right here outside of plant I It is going to be this situation here, right? They engulfed. Now finally, let's actually get Teoh a little bit about road ists. What defines them? Um well, not a lot. Unfortunately, protests again there a grouping of convenience, right? They're basically everything that does not belong to fungi and Amalia and plant. I write fungus, animals, plants. Every you carry out that is not in one of those three groups is a protest. So that means that protests are a para file edit group, right? They're not monofilament IQ. Unlike fungi, animals and plants which are all mono, which are Armando Filipek protests are para Philip Group. So as a group, they do have some shared features. Uh, but many protests will display unique characteristics. And in later video, we will actually go through and look at some of those characteristics. So most protests are uni cellular. Um, but some are colonial meaning that live in colonies and others actually are multi cellular. And these are like brown algae, red algae and slime molds. Those air some, uh, examples of multi cellular protests. Now it is worth noting that multi cellular garrity actually arose independently in many eukaryotic lineages. So, uh, there wasn't some original multi cellular organism, and that's where all multi cellular organisms came from. Instead, uh, many multi cellular organisms have cropped up in various lineages right. So you might remember, uh, when we talked about evolution, we said that the I evolved independently 16/ different times. So just like that multi cellular charity arose independently, many times in eukaryotic lineages. Now, most protests undergo a sexual reproduction, which will include mitosis, unlike binary fission. Right? Remember, protests are you carry out. So they're gonna have a nucleus, which means they're going to need to perform Might Asus when they when the cells divide. However, uh, they generally, uh, sorry. We'll produce undergo a sexual reproduction, but some of them have evolved a various forms of sexual reproduction. And remember, sexual reproduction is a major event in evolution because it allows for the introduction of tons of genetic variation, which is super important for evolutionary purposes. Now, it's, uh, worth looking at this little mock up of a file a genetic tree, and I really wanna emphasize mock up. Um, this is not like a very nice file, a genetic tree. I'm really just trying to show one little, uh, point here. And that is how much? Outside of plants, animals and fungi, how many different lineages there are outside of plants, animals and fungi. So here our keep lasted A This is this is plants, right? This is a plant. I basically, um Now, that's not to say that there aren't protests in this group, but that's where land plants are. We have fun guy over here, and it's e should note that this whole branches coming off of this one right here, um and so fun guy right there and then you can see down here we have animals. So look at all these other lineages that exist outside of plants, animals and fungi. Right? Thes are all the protests Big big group, there big big group. And as you can see, lots of distantly related cousins, so to speak. That's what I meant by the This is not a mon If I let it group, but a parafoil ethic group. There's all these Philip parallel to each other, uh, in this taxonomy, and with that, let's flip the page