2) Elongation of Translation

by Jason Amores Sumpter
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in this video, we're going to talk about the second step of translation, which is the elongation of translation. And so, of course, E elongation just means making something longer. And what's going to be made longer is the growing poly peptide chain, the growing amino acid chain. And so, during the elongation of termination, amino acids are going to be added one by one to the previous amino acid at the C terminus of the growing chain. And so therefore, this means that the poly peptide chain is going to be growing from its in terminus to its C terminus. Now the ride zone again is going to be the main, uh, structure involved with translation, and it's going to be reading the Marna, the Messenger RNA and Cody Johns. It's going to be reading the Marna code ions from the five prime end of the Marna to the three prime end of the Marna. And as it reads these katanas, these three nucleotide sequence the rhizome is going to be pairing each of the Karnak Oden's with the correct respective Trn a antique Oden's and those tr Anna's we know are going to be specifying one amino acid And so each code on will specify one amino acid by pairing with a TR in A that is attached to that amino acids. Now, the way that translation elongation works is that new T Arnas that air charged and attached to amino acids are going to enter the ribosomes a site and then shift into the ribosomes p site. And then finally, they're going to exit the ride his own through the ribosomes e site before exiting. And so if we take a look at our image down below at the elongation of translation, we can better understand how this process works. And so here, at the very beginning, what we're showing you is the end result of the initiation of translation where we have the small and large rivals, almost sub unit are intact and bound to the very first t r n a on the messenger RNA, the Marna. And so what you can see here is that charged T Arnas or TR names that are attached to amino acids are going to enter into the ribs, um, into the ribosomes a site. So that's what we have here as the very first step here that charged tr nas air going to enter into the ribs own via the A site on. Then what's going to happen is a peptide barred is going to be formed and recall that a peptide bond is a covalin bond between amino acids. And so what happens here is that the first amino acids, uh, in this position is going to be co violently linked to the next amino acid. And so it gets passed on to this, uh, Trn a here. And so you can see they've been co violently linked these two amino acids. So we have a growing amino acid chain here. Now what happens is the rhizome is going to continue to shift along the Marne A and that causes the discharge. Tierno, remember, discharged RNAs or Tierney's that air not attached to amino acids because again, it's amino acid was, uh, linked to the previous amino acid. And so the discharge DNA is going to, uh, enter and exit, uh, enter the, uh, the east site and, uh, exit into exit the ribs own through the east site on. So you can see here that the discharge tiara is exiting through the east site. And meanwhile the other tiara is shifting into the P site. So the tiara is going to shift into the peace site on. Ultimately, the process is going to repeat. So we have a growing amino acid change. So now a new tr nay could enter into this position. A new peptide bond would be formed between that amino acid. And then again, the process would just continuously repeat over and over and over again to continuously add amino acids and grow this poly peptide chain. And so that is going to be the elongation of translation. And we'll be able to talk about the final step of translation the termination of translation in our next video, so I'll see you all there.