Cardiovascular Disease

by Jason Amores Sumpter
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just like other systems in the body. Blood pressure has to be controlled in a homey of static manner. And barrow receptors are going to be thes pressure sensors that help detect blood pressure in the heart and the arteries. Now, obviously, uh, you know, a certain level of blood pressure needs to be maintained, and blood pressure is going to be affected by things like blood vessel dilation and constriction as well as blood volume E. I mean, you know, if you have more blood volume, you will be able to generate a greater pressure, however, by, for example, constricting blood vessels. You can create greater pressure even with, you know, a lower blood volume. So there's many different mechanisms to kind of essentially tweak and fine tune to get the optimal blood volume and pressure. So one thing that the heart will do is increased cardiac output in response to low blood pressure. Right. Your blood pressure is low. Well, pump more blood thio sort of counter act that affect another thing is, uh, you know, if the body is experiencing low blood volume or, uh, you know, uh, is actually will happen due to a variety of other reasons as well. But blood can be diverted to important tissues. For example, during like a fight or flight response, you know you'll have blood diverted away from digestive tissues because if you know you need to fight for your life or run away or something, you don't really need to be worrying about digesting your meal. And this is accomplished by, uh, constricting specific arterials. Thio, you know, ensure that more blood is going to be more important. Tissues, for example, like in a fighter flight scenario muscles, right. You obviously want a lot of blood going your muscles so you can fight or run away. Do whatever. However, this sort of tweaking can also be helpful if you're experiencing, uh, lower blood volume and need to ensure that, you know, like the brain is still getting sufficient blood supply. So by constricting blood vessels, the the body can regulate blood delivery to various tissues. Now, additionally, uh, veins can constrict to divert more blood volume to the heart and arteries so it doesn't have thio. Thes effects don't have to apply across all blood vessels, you know, in this example, the veins can actually constrict themselves to uh, supply less space for blood to hang out so that there's gonna be mawr blood necessarily in the heart and arteries, which is, of course, you know, the important place toe have the blood because, uh, you know the arteries, they're going to deliver it to the tissues, whereas the veins, they're just bringing it back to the heart. And lastly, blood pressure gets too high. You can dilate your blood vessels and lead are an initiate a drop in blood pressure by creating more, uh, are less resistance to the flow of blood. Now, ah, this nifty little image just sort of shows you generally like percentages of blood being delivered to various tissues. Just think it's interesting. And here I'm just trying to show that there are actually many different types of regulators that are connected to the heart. So these air supposed to represent, um, a bunch of different neuron aled connections or nervous system connections to the heart that can modify, uh, the pumping of blood and influence, you know, blood pressure. Of course, you know, there's many other mechanisms aside from thes story synaptic connections to the heart, which will provide, um, you know, home, you know, static system to fine tune blood pressure and blood volume. So what about when things go wrong? Well, we call diseases that affect the heart or vasculature cardiovascular disease, Very creative name. Now one of the most common types of conditions. You may have heard of his arterial sclerosis. This is the hardening of the arteries due to an accumulation of fat deposits. This has to do with this stuff cholesterol, which is very important molecule. We use it for a lot of different stuff, including producing steroid hormones. And they play a very important role in membrane fluidity of cells. And you've probably heard of, um, good cholesterol and bad cholesterol is sort of like the, you know, layman terms that are used to describe what are actually known as low density lipoprotein and high density lipoprotein. Now, low density lipoprotein is what people refer to you as bad cholesterol, and the high density lipoprotein groups is good cholesterol, and this is a bit of an oversimplification. But the reason that we think of them this way is that, uh, LDL delivers cholesterol in the body, and so it's going to be responsible for those deposits you know, if you have, uh, too much, Um, you know too much LDL. You're gonna have a lot of cholesterol coursing around your body, and it can lead to these accumulation of fat deposits that will lead Thio arterial sclerosis, which is bad HD Els. We call good cholesterol because they actually scavenge the excess cholesterol. So they're like the cleanup crew they get. They pick up all that allow that deposited stuff and, you know, help prevent arterial sclerosis. Now, a myocardial infarction is the fancy name for a heart attack. And this is essentially when one of the coronary arteries gets blocked and this leads to damage of the heart muscle tissue, super serious, bad stuff. Lastly, um, I want to mention what a stroke is, which is damage to the nervous tissue in the brain. And usually the reason we're talking about this in relation to the heart is because usually strokes will be caused by a lack of oxygen getting delivered to the brain tissue due to some sort of blocked or ruptured artery in the brain. So a lot of scary stuff we talked about here, I hope it doesn't give you nightmares. That's all I have for this video. Keep your heart healthy, guy.