Hi. In this video, we'll be talking about the two major structures of the plant body, the roots and shoots. Now, before we get there, let's actually start by reviewing some of the plant anatomy we've already talked about. Hopefully you remember that plants are you carry, Ah, tick organisms that synthesized sugars by using sunlight energy to generate a teepee and then using that 80 p to carry out carbon fixation in the Calvin cycle. This process of courses photosynthesis that I'm talking about. And if you don't remember this or you feel like you need to review it may be highly recommend you go back and check out the videos on photosynthesis and the Calvin cycle. There also some videos on general, uh, plant biology. Let's just say that can cover some topics to maybe give you a little more background before this. Now moving on the chloroplast is the organ L in the plant cell that carries out photosynthesis. Usually there's many chloroplasts in there, not just one. Carrying out photosynthesis and chloroplasts are get their name from chlorophyll, which is the green photo pigment that plays a big role in absorbing sunlight. Energy. Now chloroplasts like the one we see here. Onley Take up a little space in the cell. There. Many need to fit in the cells. They don't, you know, uh, take up tons of room. However, plant cells have this large structure called the Central Vac You'il and Central Vac. You'll has a variety of functions in the plant cell. For one thing, it's filled with water, sugar, amino acids. Other stuff. Sometimes plant cells will sequester toxins in the central vac. You'll thio protect the cell from them, and we call this solution in the central vac you'll the cell sap. And in addition to just holding this material, the Central Vac. You'll also is responsible for maintaining a plant cells ter giggity right that rigidness that the cell gets now. The scent. The vacuole is only one piece of maintaining that rigidness. The other piece is the cell wall, which provides structure and protection for the plant cell. Now you might recall they're actually two types of cell walls. There's primary cell wall and secondary cell wall. Primary cell wall is made of cellulose and cellulose, you'll remember. Is that Polly Sacha ride and it, uh, this primary cell wall surrounds the plasma membrane while the cell is growing. Now, the secondary cell wall is only found in some plants. Cells and secondary cell wall is a thicker structure, and not only is it made of cellulose, it's made of lignin. Lignin is a polymer you might recall that's found in vascular plants, and it helps the cells in those plants maintain rigidity. It's also a very important component of wood, so that might give you a sense of the sort of ah hard material that results from lignin fication. Now the secondary cell wall will actually form after the cell has grown. So it's uhh You know, the primary cell wall is gonna form during cell growth. After cell growth, some plant cells will form that secondary cell wall. You might recall that plant cells actually have channels between them called plasma. Does Mata and these channels allow for the transport of materials between cells and cell signaling? So you can see, uh, basically, the image we have here is a blown up version of one of these junctions. Between plant cells, you can see the plasma. Does Mata create these channels between the cells? However, these plant cells still have their cell walls and plasma membranes. And, of course, one last thing that's worth noting is, um, this substance, the middle, um, Ella, mostly made of pectin, is kind of like a sticky goo that's gonna help glue these plant cells together, and you will find it on the outside of the primary cell wall. Now let's flip the page.