in this video, we're going to talk about chloroplast structure and so very similarly to mitochondria. Chloroplasts actually have two membranes. They have an outer membrane and they have an inner membrane as well. But unlike mitochondria, neither of the chloroplast membranes have folds or Chris stay and recall from our previous lesson videos that mitochondria have folds or Chris stay in the inner mitochondrial membrane. But once again, the chloroplast membranes, neither of them have folds or Christie. And so if we take a look at our image down below, notice the left hand side of our images showing the same light microscope image from our last lesson video zooming into plant cells. And all of these green circles that we see here represent chloroplasts. And so if we zoom in tow one of these green circles, it'll look something like this. What we're showing you here. And so the first thing to note about the chloroplast that we're showing you here is that it has two membranes. It has an outer membrane that we're labeling right here on the outside. And then it has an inner membrane as well. That's on the inside. But notice that neither the outer membrane or the inner membrane has folds or Christie, they don't have folds or Christie. Now you'll also notice that inside of the chloroplast there are these other structures, and one of the things that you'll notice right away are these green pancake looking structures that are all over the place on the inside. And these green pancake looking structures are called Fila Coy AIDS. And so Thilo Coid are interconnected, pancake shaped sacks that are within the chloroplast, and they're very important for, ah, part of the photosynthesis reaction. Now you'll also notice that the Thilo coins each of these individual green pancake looking structures are forming stacks, and these stacks of the Thill, a coid, are referred to as Grana. And that is the plural form here. So grana are referring to stacks of Fila coId or, in other words, stacks of the green pancakes or green pancakes Tax, if you will now remember these green looking pancakes, they're not actually pancakes, of course. They're called Villa Coy AIDS and the space, the innermost region of the chloroplast, is specifically referred to as the Strom A. And so the Strom A is pretty much equivalent to the matrix of the mitochondria. And so it's the innermost region of the chloroplast that contains enzymes, ribosomes and chloroplast DNA as well. And so down below in our image, noticed that were saying that the Shoma well, it's just the innermost region here. It's basically the space that fills the middle. I'm sorry, the chloroplast here on the innermost region here. And so this year concludes our introduction to chloroplast structure. And we'll be able to get some practice applying these concepts as we move forward in our course. So I'll see you all in our next video.