Review & Application of DNA Cloning in Medicine

by Jason Amores Sumpter
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in this video, we're going to do a review and talk about the application of DNA, cloning and medicine. And so now that we've discussed the techniques used in DNA cloning, let's see how they're all used together in this application of DNA cloning of medicine. Now, diabetics actually do not produce enough insulin protein to metabolize blood glucose. And these diabetics, they require daily injections of insulin. Now, researchers have found a way to use transgenic organisms, uh, in order to mass produce insulin for these diabetic patients that need these daily injections and so down below. In our example image, we're going to talk about how human insulin protein is expressed and purified in large amounts using transgenic E. Coli transgenic bacteria. So we're focusing on the cloning of the human insulin gene. Now, of course, in the first step of DNA cloning, we know that we need to make the recombinant DNA, and so we're going to take the bacterial plasmid here from the E. Coli bacterium. And, uh, we're going to take the human gene, the insulin gene, and we're going to create a recombinant DNA molecule using restriction enzymes and DNA legs, and then once the recombinant DNA has been made, it can be used as a cloning vector to be inserted into the bacteria, and so the bacteria is going to be transformed with the recombinant plasmid. And so now this bacteria contains a human insulin gene, making this organism a transgenic organism. And then this bacterium with the transformed plasma is just going to replicate via its normal replication process, creating a bunch of bacteria. And each of these bacteria are going to have a copy of the recumbent DNA. And because they have this gene, this human insulin gene, these bacteria are going to be reproducing and cloning the human insulin gene, and they'll be able to actually express the human insulin gene. And so we have bacteria that are producing the human insulin gene, and the cloned insulin genes can be used for other experience and the human insulin hormone, the protein that's being expressed, that's created by the bacteria. It can also be, uh, extracted and purified, and that insulin can be given to diabetic individuals to help those patients. And so what we're seeing here is that cloning the human insulin gene does have medical applications, Uh, and so this year, concludes our brief introduction to the application of DNA cloning and medicine and completes our review. And so we'll be able to get some practice applying these concepts as we move forward in our course, so I'll see you all in our next video.