Fatty Acids

by Jason Amores Sumpter
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in this video, we're going to introduce fatty acids, and so fatty acids are defined as hydrocarbon chains of varying length with a car box Cilic acid Functional group at the very end, and so we'll be able to see some examples of fatty acids down below when we get to our image. Now, really, there are two main types of fatty acids that you all should know, and the first main type are the saturated fatty acids, which, as their name implies with the saturated. These are fully saturated with hydrogen hydrogen atoms. And so this is because they Onley contain carbon to carbon single bonds. And when they contain Onley carbon to carbon single bonds, that means that they can be fully saturated with hydrogen. Now, saturated fatty acids tend to be solids at room temperature. And so let's take a look at our example down below at the saturated fatty acids, which we have over here on the far left hand side. So these are saturated fatty acids because notice that the hydrocarbon chain that we have here, which is on Lee, made up of hydrogen and carbon atoms they're fully saturated with hydrogen. It's they have the maximum amount of hydrogen on them because notice that the carbon carbon bonds in here on Lee contain single bonds, as we mentioned up above. And so notice that, uh, this hydrocarbon chain here at the very end, it has a car box Cilic acid Group, which was right here. It's basically a car boxful group. And so that is why this is a fatty acid and it's saturated once again because the hydrocarbon chain is fully saturated with hydrogen. Now notice that over here this is another way to represent the hydrocarbon chain where each of these corners that you see here each of these points represents a carbon atom and notice that the hydrogen atoms aren't being shown. It's just another representation off the same exact molecule. That's why we have the equal sign in between them now, once again, saturated fatty acids, they tend to be solids at room temperature. Just like this butter up here, uh, butter eyes, of course. Solid at room temperature. And so that is a source of saturated fatty acids. Now, the second main type of fatty acids that you all should know are the unsaturated fatty acids. And so the unsaturated fatty acids, as their name implies, are not fully saturated with hydrogen. It's and the reason that they're not fully saturated with hydrogen is because they have the presence of at least one greater than or equal toe, one carbon to carbon double bond. And so the double bonds that are in the hydrocarbon chain. They create a bend in the chain or a kink in the chain, and the kink in the chain ultimately makes these unsaturated fatty acids liquids at room temperature instead of being solids at room temperature. And so when we take a look at our image down below, over here in the middle, notice what we're showing you as an example of unsaturated fatty acids and notice that the hydrocarbon chain that we have here is not fully saturated with hydrogen because there is a carbon to carbon double bond. And so there is. They are missing some hydrogen here at thes possessions, and so that's why they call them unsaturated because they're not fully saturated due to the presence of a double bond. Now, notice that the double bond also creates a bend in the chain. It's not straight or linear, like the saturated fatty acids are. It creates a bend or a kink in the chain. And so because it has a kink in the chain, the unsaturated fatty acids, they cannot be tightly packed together, so they're gonna remain relatively loose. And that loose nature is why they are liquids at room temperature. So these oils, vegetable oils and olive oil and things like that they are examples of unsaturated fatty acids that are liquids at room temperature. Now there is one subset of unsaturated fatty acids that air called trans fatty acids. And so you may have heard of trans fatty acids or transfats before. And really, these are a subtype of unsaturated fatty acids. That's why we have them group in the same grouping as unsaturated fatty acids. So trans fats, our artificial unsaturated fatty acids. And instead of having a kink, the the trans fats. They actually do not have a kink in their chain, so they have a double bond, But the double bond does not make them kinked, and so they remain linear. So let's take a look at the trans fatty acid, which we have down below right here, and so notice that the Trans fatty acid does have a double bond in its chain, however, notice that the double bond that's in the chain of the trans fatty acid does not create a kink in the chain or a bend in the chain. Like other unsaturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids specifically are going to have straight, uh, chains, despite having a double bond in them. Now, trans fatty acids again they are artificially made, and so you'll find them in foods like burgers and French fries and things of that nature. And so that's why we have this image right here and trans fatty acids. Usually they're associated with being very unhealthy. And so, uh, this is typically types of foods that you would want to try to avoid in your typical everyday diet on. So this year concludes our introduction to fatty acids and the difference between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, and we'll be able to get some practice moving forward in our course. So I'll see you all in our next video