in this video, we're going to introduce direct cell signaling and so direct sells. Signaling, as its name implies, is going to be local signaling between cells that are in direct contact with each other. And so recall from our previous lesson videos that neighboring cells are able to directly communicate via different types of cell junctions. And so notice down below in our image. Over here on the left hand side, we're showing you an example of how cell junctions can be used for direct cell signaling and so recall that gap junctions are junctions that connect the cytoplasm of two animal cells. And so what you'll notice is that these gap junctions, these proteins, here they create a gap between the two cells, where the cells are able to exchange nutrients and exchange signaling molecules with each other to directly communicate and notice that they are in direct physical contact here with these gap junctions. Now, over here, notice that we have plant cells and plant cells, use plasma. Does Mata as their version of gap junctions that connects there cytoplasm. And so here we're showing you plasma does model, which again is gonna connect the cytoplasm of plant cells, allowing them to exchange nutrients, materials and signaling molecules so that they could be in direct contact and signal and communicate with each other. Now, cell to cell recognition is going to be one. Cells make direct contact via membrane proteins, and so these membrane proteins ultimately are going to cause a cellular response. And so if we take a look at our image down below over here, cell to cell recognition, notice that we have two cells that are in direct contact this cell here in this cell over here, and notice that they have membrane proteins. This one has green membrane proteins, and the other one has purple membrane proteins here. And so what you'll notice is that with cell to cell recognition, a cell is able to recognize the proteins on the surface of another cell is able to recognize membrane proteins, and so here on the left hand side, what we have is our signaling cell. And on the right hand side, what we have is the target cell, and the reason this is the target cell is because ultimately this is where the cell response is being generated, and so we could say this cell is signaling a to this cell to respond. And so this year concludes our introduction to direct cell signaling. And in our next lesson video, we'll talk about indirect cell signaling, so I'll see you all in that video.