Innate Immune Cells

by Jason Amores Sumpter
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one of the main weapons that the cells of the innate immune system have against pathogens is fake Rosato sis. It allows them thio remove these pathogens and prevent them hopefully from infecting any cells. Now they're gonna be three types of cells that will be performing fa grow site Asus in the innate immune system those air neutrophils which are faggots sites or cells that perform Fabbro psychosis that will circulate in the blood. And they're going to be attracted to infected tissues by CIDA kinds those messengers sick or those messenger molecules, those chemical signals that will attract cells of the immune system. So if I jump out of the way here, you can see a neutrophils circulating in the blood. Here we have, ah, red upset a red blood cell, and it's gonna circulate in the blood and look for these site of kinds and it's gonna be attracted to them. Go in. Look for those pathogens that you can see here. That's a pathogen, and it's going thio bagasse a toast them it's gonna eat them up, and you can see what that faggots ketosis kind of looks like here. The cell will actually pinch its membrane around the thing it's trying to engulf and basically suck it in in a vest sickle. And here in this particular cell, it's actually going to digest what it takes in and break it down like you see there now, neutrophils are kind of like the mobile warriors. They're gonna go seek and destroy these pathogens. But macrophages, arm or like defenders, they kind of hang out in tissues and organs that will frequently encounter pathogens. Uh, and there mainly be found around like the lymphatic system and especially lymph nodes, because they're gonna be a lot of pathogens that cycle through there. And in addition to macrophages, you'll find dendritic cells in those areas to. And these dendritic cells are also faggot sites, except their job is a little different. They aren't there, just thio remove. You know, the pathogen they find like, for example, the macrophages. Its job is just thio gobble up. Uh, any pathogen it finds like Here's the bacteria. It's going thio. Gobble it up, Remove it. Dendritic cells are there to actually take what they, uh, faggots chitose and use it to stimulate the adaptive immune system. So their job is super important because they're going to bridge the innate immune system and the adaptive immune system, and they're gonna help trigger an adaptive in response. So these faggots sites are not the Onley in eight remain responses are body has some other tactics they can use. Um, you might not think of it because, you know, we tend not to deal with this in our day to day anymore. But, you know, we used to have to worry about parasites much more often. We actually have these immune cells called you sign a fills that are there to defend against multi cellular parasites. And we also have some defenses against viruses. There are these cells called natural killer cells. Super cool name. They circulate the body and they destroy viruses. I triggering a popped Asus, which is programmed cell death. And I jump out of the way here. You can see, uh, the cells of our body will basically present certain things on their cell surface that allow our immune system thio, identify them as self as as part of the organism. So, you know, like don't hurt these guys. These are the good guys. So here we have a natural killer cell and it's checking out this guy basically saying, Okay, you're all right here. We have a cell infected with a virus and that is going to be terminated by this natural killer cell. It's gonna trigger apoptosis and cause that cell tow lice or break apart. And it's going to do this because it's going to be able to detect whether or not the virus is in there, uh, in a system that we're actually going to cover when we talk about adaptive immunity. So I'm not gonna really get into the details now. Needless to say, these natural killer cells can identify cells that are infected with viruses and will destroy them. Now ourselves will also secrete these special cited kinds called interference. And these will actually induce, uh, induce cells. Thio interfere with viral replication in various ways. Now, lastly, wanna talk about this basically system of proteins called the Compliment system? These proteins will be found in the blood, and they're activated by those pathogen associative molecular patterns. They're also activated by antibodies, and we'll talk about this again when we cover the adaptive immune system. I just want to point out that they're not exclusive to the innate immune system. However, they are part of the innate immune system because they can recognize those pathogen associated molecular patterns. And what they're gonna do is basically put holes in the membranes of these pathogens and cause the cells thio lice and you can see the complement proteins here. Basically, they'll form a poor that will, uh, stick through the membrane of the pathogen and, you know, cause it thio break open. You know, you'll have a bunch of these poor swarming in the membrane of the pathogen, and it will just explode like you see going on here with that, let's flip the page.