Innate Immune Response

by Jason Amores Sumpter
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Hi. In this video, we'll be talking about the innate immune system, your body's first line of defense against pathogens. Now the innate immune system is going to amount a non specific response, and that's supposed to as opposed to the specific response that the adaptive immune system will launch. The skin is basically the front lines of your body's defense systems. It's sort of like the moat to the fortress, and it's gonna protect the inside of your body from any pathogens that might want to enter. Of course, it's an imperfect barrier. Not only are there holes in it like you could see this nostril right here, but it can be penetrated in other ways. It can be broken open through physical injury, allow allowing pathogens in. So it's the front line, but very much so, not the final line of defense. Now all of the openings to your body well generally have Cem mucus surrounding them, and this is a slimy secretion that is a mix of Polly sack rides and water, and its purpose is to trap foreign invaders. So, you know we have mucus in our nostrils because that's an opening to the outside. We could potentially breathin pathogens like you see happening here in this image. So the goal is that if we do breathe in some bad stuff, it's just gonna get stuck in our mucus, and then we will expel it like you see this guy doing here. It's worth noting that mucus also can contain anti microbial enzymes, So not only will it trapped those invaders, but it might actually kill them while they're trapped. Kind of like a roach motel. The pathogens check in, but they don't check out now. You will also find what are called leis designs, which are enzymes that breakdown bacterial cell walls. And you'll find these associated with tissues, Uh, that you can have pathogens entering from the outside. So it's just another sort of non specific defense, uh, in these vulnerable areas of the body. Now the innate immune response is going to be that first response to pathogens. It's going to be initiated by Lucas sites, which are those white blood cells. And again it's going to be non specific, as opposed to the specificity of the adaptive immune system. Now, since it's not even though it's not specific, the immune cells have to be able to recognize the pathogens. And they're going to do that through what are called pathogen associated molecular patterns or champs and basically thes air just molecules that are commonly displayed by pathogens and will not be displayed by human cells or cells of the organism's body so that it knows their foreign. A perfect example of this is the Lippo Polly Sack rides that you find on the surface of bacterial cells. You can see one right behind my head here, and basically this is going to be just one of those pathogen associated molecular patterns not super specific, you know, like lots of different types of bacteria are gonna have these, but it's a way to tip our immune system off that. Hey, there's some bacteria hanging out here. So how does our immune system recognize it? Well, our immune cells will have what are called pattern recognition receptors that air membrane receptors that identify those pants. So these PR ours are going to identify the pants and a specific type of pattern recognition receptor that you will see in a lot of immune cells. Are these toll like receptors, as they're called? Were T. L R's and again those air type of pattern recognition receptor that air found on some immune cells. And what's special about them is they will initiate a signaling cascade, which will help recruit other immune cells and lead to a mounted immune response. One specific type of toll, like receptor T L R four recognizes those, uh, Lippo Polly Sacha rides from bacteria those pants that bacteria have and it will release site of kinds. In response. Thio binding with the Lippo Polly Sacha ride. And those CIDA kinds are signaling molecules that will attract other immune cells and help mount the immune response. And you can see those t l R's right here. Uh, this is our cell membrane there, protruding out from the cell surface and they will bind, you know, the Lippo Polly Sacha ride. That's what the LPs is right there. They're gonna bind that Lippo Polly Sacha ride that is expressed by bacteria. And that binding, as you can hopefully see, will initiate uh, you know, a whole cascade of responses within the cell that ultimately will lead Thio, for example, releasing those cited kinds with that. Let's flip the page