ATP

by Jason Amores Sumpter
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in this video, we're going to begin our lesson on a teepee now. Recall from our previous lesson videos that a T P is really just an abbreviation for a molecule called a Dina Seen triphosphate, where the A in ATP is for the a N Adina scene. The T and A T P is for the T in try, and the P and 80 p is for the P in phosphate. And so a Dina seen triphosphate or a teepee is a high energy molecule that's used to power cellular activities. And so if the cell has ah lot of 80 p, then the cell has a lot of energy. But if the cell has a little bit of a teepee, then the cell only has a little bit of energy. Now, really, there are only three primary components. Oven a teepee molecule and, as its name implies, with the triphosphate part, try meaning. Three. There are a chain of three phosphate groups in a teepee molecule. Now the Adina seen part of a teepee is referring to a molecule that actually has two components. It has a pen tose sugar, and it also has an ad inning nitrogenous base. And so let's take a look at our image down below, over here on the left hand side to get a better understanding of the three components of a denizen triphosphate or a T p. And again, the try phosphate part is referring to a chain of three phosphate groups that you see here 12 and three. And so we could go ahead and label these as phosphate groups. And there are, in fact, three phosphate groups on an A t p molecule. And then the ad Anin Uh, sorry. The Adina seen portion of a teepee is actually referring to both this sugar as well as this nitrogenous base. And so you can see that there is a pantos sugar here, which is this portion right here. And there's also a nitrogenous base right here, which is actually actually the nitrogenous base of Ademi. And so together the adenosine nitrogenous base as well as the pento sugar here make up the Adina seen portion of ATP. Now, what's also important to note is that uh, 80 p is a high energy molecule. But the way that sells extract energy from a deep Is there a process called a teepee, hydraulics, ISS, and so a teepee. Hydraulics. ISS is the process of breaking bonds between phosphate groups in an 80 p molecule that ends up generating chemical energy that could be used by the self as well as a D. P or a Dina seen Die phosphate where the D here stands for die, meaning that it only has two phosphate groups. Now, also in some scenarios, sometimes a d p can also be hydrolyzed to form a MP, and the M here is referring to mono Adina seen mono phosphate and mono is a prefix that means just one phosphate. So let's take a look at our image down below over here on the right hand side to get a better understanding of 80 p and a d p hydraulics, iss. And so notice that at the very top here, we're starting with an 80 p molecule. This is another representation of an 80 p molecule. Notice that the Dean Adina scene is right here. The nitrogenous base and the pento sugar is represented right here in green. And then the three phosphate groups are right here 12 and three, and so you can also represent a teepee by this symbol right here. And we'll be doing that a lot throughout the court. The rest of our courts representing 80 p as just the symbol right here. Now, if we take a teepee and we hide relies it hydro's the prefix for water licenses, the prefix for breaking down or the root for breaking down. So using water to break down a teepee, you can see that that water could be used to break the bonds between phosphate groups, the process of breaking the bonds between phosphate groups. And so when we break off this bond right here between the phosphate group using water, ultimately what we end up getting is one of the phosphate groups is released and also energy is released. And that energy can be used to power other chemical reactions and used to power other cellular activities. And so the molecule that remains on Lee has to phosphate groups here. And so this molecule is now a d. P. Since the d here stands for die phosphate and die is a route that means Onley to phosphates one right here in the other one right here. The third one is released or attached to some other molecule on. Then the process a lot of energy is released Now again, in some scenarios a d. P this molecule here it can be also hydrolyzed releasing. So you can see the water here coming in to break this bond and that will release the phosphate group and also release energy as well. And the A MP molecule is gonna be made here and again. The M and A M P is for mono, and mono means Onley one phosphate group and so you can see how the hydraulics is here is going toe lead to the release of energy and the release of energy is really what's going to be used to power chemical reactions. And so this year concludes our brief introduction to a teepee, and we'll be able to get some more practice applying these concepts and learning more about 80 p as we move forward in our course. So I'll see you all in our next video