DNA vs. RNA

by Jason Amores Sumpter
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in this video, we're going to briefly compare and contrast DNA and RNA. And so recall that D. N A is really just an abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid and DNA. Its primary function is to store genetic or hereditary information inside of the cell. And so this is information that would be passed down from one generation down to the next generation. Now we'll talk more about the functions of DNA later in our course, and in this video, we're mainly gonna focus on the structure of DNA and DNA forms, a structure that scientists refer to as a double helix. And so they call it a double helix because DNA is really going to be made up of two strands. And those two strands form a helix, a twisting, winding ladder type of structure that will be able to see down below in our image. And these two strands that make up the DNA molecule um, they're actually anti parallel with respect to each other, and anti parallel just means that the directionality are going in opposite directions. These two strands go in opposite directions in terms of their directionality, and we'll be able to see the the anti parallel Shands as well. Down below in our image. And these two strands, these two anti parallel strands, they're actually connected to each other via hydrogen bonds that form between the nitrogenous base pairs. And so once again, we'll be able to see this down below in our image. So on the left hand side of our image over here, notice that we're showing you d n a deoxyribonucleic acid, and once again, DNA forms a double helix structure. And so that means that it forms, uh, has two strands, so you can see one strand is right here, and the other strand is right here. And these two strands, they wind up onto each other, forming hydrogen bonds between the base pairs. And so, if we were to unwind the DNA so that it has this type of structure down below once again you'll see the DNA base pairs where, uh, sees always pair with G s and A's always pair with teas and so you can see the color coordination here and see how they always pair in that fashion. On DSO This here represents one DNA strand, and, uh, this down here represents the other DNA strand and so you can see that this blue structure that you see here represents the sugar phosphate backbone. And we know from our last lesson video that sugar, phosphate, backbones of nucleic acids have directionality. And so notice that this end of the sugar phosphate backbone for the Strand is the five prime. And which means that the opposite end over here is going to be the three prime end. And so it's going from five prime to three prime left from left to right in that direction. However, notice that the opposite strand over here it's five. Prime end is over here on the right, and so that, of course, means that it's three. Prime end must be over here on the left, and so the bottom strand is going from five prime to three, prime from right toe left in the opposite direction as the top strand. And so because we have two strands that are going in opposite directions, that makes these two strands in the DNA molecule anti parallel with respect to each other. If they were going in the same direction, that would make them parallel, but because they're going in opposite directions. That makes them anti parallel. Now, on the other hand, are N A is the abbreviation for ribonucleic acid, and Arna turns out it has a variety of different types of functions. And once again, we'll talk more about the functions of Varna later in our course. But one of the primary functions of RNA is to act as a template for synthesizing or building proteins. Now, in terms of the structure of RNA, aren't a usually forms a single stranded nucleotide change rather than forming a double helix like DNA. So if we take a look at our image over here on the right hand side, notice that we're showing you r N a, which once again is usually a single stranded structure, so you could see the single strand of RNA right here. And, of course, the single stranded RNA is gonna have a sugar phosphate backbone that has directionality. And so if this is the three prime end over here, that means the opposite end must be the five prime end. And so you can see that RNA once again, it's specifically gonna be using nitrogenous bases of use instead of using the nitrogenous bases of teas like DNA so T is once again specific for DNA, whereas use a specific for our specific for RNA and the once again, ARN is normally a single stranded structure. But the base pairing here can still apply if it binds to um itself. Sometimes the Arnie can fold up onto itself and buying to itself. Forming these complex structures, Um, and also are they can, sometimes buying two small antique Oden's, which again we'll talk a lot more about later in our course. But you can see that this is how the Arna would base pair in the same way as DNA, except once again replacing the tea with the you. And that's really the main take away. And so this year concludes our introduction to the differences between DNA and RNA, and we'll be able to get some practice applying these concepts as we move forward in our course. So I'll see you all in our next video