Helper T Cells and B Cells

by Jason Amores Sumpter
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helper T cells are the other type of effect, or T cells, and their role is to assist with the activation of other immune cells and to recruit other immune cells by secrete ing side kinds. There's actually two types there, th one cells whose specific role is to activate those site a toxic T cells. And there are th two cells whose specific role is to help activate B cells, which we'll talk about in just a moment. I just want to quickly point out this diagram of a helper T cell, which, if it encounters theater pro pre it the appropriate MHC UH, appropriate antigens bound thio MHC uh, protein. It's going thio respond by, you know, either activating B cells, macrophages or T cells or releasing cited kinds to attract other immune cells. That's what's going on in this image. Now B cell activation occurs when a B cell receptor interacts with a free floating auntie gin that has an EP itto it combined thio, and it will find these in the lymph or in the blood now that Auntie Jen, when it's bound to the B cell receptor, will be ingested into the cell, then digested and then part of it will be attached to an MHC Class two protein and transported to the cell surface, where it will be displayed. Now, th two cells that have complementary receptors to the displayed antigen will bind to the B cells, and this TH to sell will be activated by that interaction with the B cell, and it will cause it to release cytokines. And those CIDA kinds will then in turn stimulate that B cell so they'll basically they'll have an interaction where they stimulate each other. They kind of complement each other and stimulate each other. And this causes the B cell to become fully activated. And when it's fully activated, it's going to replicate and generate effect er and memory cells. That's what's going thio, you know, cause the B cell Thio, you know, produce those clonal populations. And in that process, those B cells will experience what's called somatic hyper mutation. Essentially, it's just like, ah, lots of mutation, but kind of like planned for mutation. I don't want to say controlled mutation, but it's like the the cells induced this mutation, and it allows those replicating B cells toe actually fine tune the receptor to bind the antigen. Better now. Thes fully activated B cells. Air going Thio, as we said, produce effect er and memory cells. The effect, er cells are some of the effect er sells it Will producer called plasma cells these air effect er B cells that produce massive amounts of antibodies and secrete those antibodies into blood. They're basically antibody factories, and you can see here this whole process, the B cell encounters the appropriate Auntie Jen. You see this B cell can't bind that Auntie Jen, so it's not gonna be activated. And then the B cell has an interaction with the Helper T cell, which causes it to become plasma cell and produced tons of antibodies and then secrete them into the blood. So that's the basic idea behind how thes B cells they're going to do their job. Let's flip the page