Primary and Secondary Immunity

by Jason Amores Sumpter
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antibodies can affect pathogens in a variety of different ways, one of which is called optimization, which essentially is when pathogens that have antibodies bound to them are more easily targeted and removed by macrophages and neutrophils. Essentially, the antibody, which binds the antigen on the on the pathogen, makes it easier for the faggots site. Faggot sites Thio come over and identify and then digest those particular pathogens. Now antibodies can also neutralize pathogens in the sense that if they coat theme, the um, they coat the pathogen, you know, and coat its exterior to the point where it basically can't function anymore. It can't infect the host cell because it's just covered in antibodies. It's like, uh, they form a shield around it, preventing it from interacting with anything in the body. This is kind of a similar idea to a glue tenacious, which is basically how antibodies can lead to clumping uh, antibodies. You might recall, or why shaped, and they have to binding sites, right? So if one binding site, let's say, binds one pathogen and another binds a different pathogen, and then another antibody binds that pathogen and another one and so on, and so forth. These antibodies can basically create big clumps of pathogens. That air kind of just stuck in this matrix of antibodies. And this, uh, you know, leads to clumping and basically rendering these, uh, pathogens neutralized. And you can see this clumping happening here and here on these particular samples. So, uh, this anti a anti be anti D That's referring to types of antibodies. And, you know, basically what's happening is the anti a antibody eyes causing a gluten nation in this sample in the anti D antibodies causing a gluten nation in this sample. But the anti B isn't binding. There's no no binding there. So no, a gluten nation. Um, but you can actually see the clumping. It's pretty wild, right? Like these samples should look like this sample for anti B, but, uh, you can see that the material which would give it that solid color all the way through, is all clumped together now. Lastly, we talked about complement proteins, and we talked about the innate immune system, and I said that not only can these be activated by pathogen associated molecular patterns, but they could be activated by antibodies to create holes in pathogen membranes, so these complement proteins are also going to be part of the adaptive immune system and are going to respond to antibodies now. As I said, the adaptive immune system kind of has two sides to it. The cell mediated response, which is going to occur through cell to cell contact and is mainly going to involve site a toxic T cells, which will be promoted by those th one cells remember their job is to help activate those side of toxic T cells. There's also the the hue moral response, which eyes going to occur in the blood and lymph or the humors of the body. And it's going to involve antibodies being released from plasma cells, which are promoted by those th two cells. So those air basically like the two aspects of the adaptive immune system, the cell to cell, uh, you know, cell to cell battle and the battle in the blood if you want to think about it that way. Now we have talked about what these affect our cells do. But remember, there's also those memory cells that are being produced, and their job is to deal with the secondary immune response primary immune response is what happens the first time you encounter an infection. And, uh, you know, antibodies are produced in response to that infection. And as you can see in a primary immune response, the amount of antibodies produced is not nearly as much as you see in a secondary immune response. And that's because the system is actively, you know, trying to identify and fight this infection. The secondary immune response is, you know, so much more powerful and potent. You see, there's, you know, there's less of a lag. Uh, in the secondary mean response. The antibody concentration shoots up almost instantaneously because it's activating those memory cells. Those pathogens are activating those memory cells now. This all is part of what we call active immunity, where you know you get an infection and you produce antibodies is part of a primary or secondary immune response. But it's worth noting that there's also what's called passive immunity, which is when you actually receive antibodies from another individual to help you deal with an infection. This is worth noting because that's how fetuses deal with infections. Mothers will actually pass on antibodies to their fetuses to help them fight off any infections they have encountered while they're developing. So that's all I have for this page. Let's flip the page.