Endoplasmic Reticulum

by Jason Amores Sumpter
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in this video, we're going to talk about the second organ l of the Endo membrane system, which is the Endo Plas Mick. Ridiculous. Um, now the Endo Plas Mick ridiculous is commonly abbreviated as just e. R for short. And so the end of plasmid particular amore. The e r uh, is a part of the Endo membrane system, which means that its boundary is going to be a membrane. And so it's no surprise that the Endo Plasvic ridiculous is going to be a membrane ISS structure. Now the end of plasma particular more. Er it is a membrane is structure, but it's actually continuous with the nuclear envelope, which is the membrane of the nucleus. And, uh, the end of plasma ridiculous is actually going to have multiple functions, and we'll be able to talk about some of those functions down below here now, because the end of plasma ridiculous is a membrane structure, the membrane structure is going to act as a barrier to the end of plasma ridiculous separating the outside of the end of plasma ridiculous, um, from the inside of the end of plasma ridiculous and the internal space or the internal compartment of the end of Plasvic. Ridiculous has a specific name that we call the e. R. Lumen. And so the er Lumen is again the internal space or compartment on the inside of the Indo plasma particular. Now, really, there are two main types of endo plasmid particular, um, that you all should know and we have them number down below number one and number two. And so the first type of end a plasma particular, um, that you should know is the rough endo plasmid particular, um, or the rough e r for short And the rough er is sometimes abbreviated as just the r e r for the rough end A plasma critical. Um, now the rough end A plasma particular, um, or the rough e r r e r is going to be a lot closer to the nucleus. So it directly extends off of the nuclear envelope. And as its name implies here with rough the rough end of plasmid particular, um, has a rough surface that is coded with ribosomes. And so the reason the rough er is called the rough ER is because its surface is rough, or at least it appears to be rough because it has ribosomes coating the surface and attached to the surface of the ER. The rough er itself now recall that ribosomes are structures that build proteins. And so these ribosomes that air coded to the surface or attached to the surface of the rough er, are going to build a newly built proteins. Uh, build newly built proteins, and the newly built proteins that are built by these rhizomes coded on the surface of the rough er are going to fold and get modified on the rough E r. Lumen or the internal space or compartment of the rough end. A plasma Ridiculous. Now, the second type of endo plasvic ridiculous that you all should know is the smooth e r. Or for short the S e r for smooth and a plasmid ridiculous. And the smooth and a plasma ridiculous or s er is farther away from the nucleus, so it's extending off of the membrane of the rough er itself. And as its name implies, with the smooth, the smooth er has a smooth surface on. That is because it has a rib, a zone free surface, meaning that there are no ribosomes on the surface of the smooth er Now because the smooth yard does not have any ribosomes, it's Rabies, Um, free. Then it's not going to be associated with building proteins. Instead, the smooth er is going to be building or synthesizing lipids, and it's also important for detoxifying drugs and poisons. So let's take a look at our example. Image down below to further distinguish between the rough e r and the smooth E r. So once again, on the left hand side, over here, we're showing you are eukaryotic cell representation and we're zooming in specifically into this region right here, uh, in this box. And so what you'll notice is the nucleus, which we already covered in our last lesson. Video is right here in this image. This is the nucleus, and the nucleus we know is part of the end of membrane system because it has a membrane, uh, surrounding it called the nuclear envelope and the end of plasma ridiculous, which is shown here in blue and an orange eyes really just a continuous extension from the nuclear envelope, as we mentioned up above its continuous with the nuclear envelope. Now there's two types of endo plasma ridiculous. We know that there's the rough end. A plasma ridiculous, um, and the smooth and a plasma ridiculous. The rough endo Plasvic ridiculous is closer to the nucleus. And so the rough end of plasma ridiculous here is in bluish color Here it's in the bluish color surrounding the nucleus. And so we could go ahead and label this as the rough endo plasmid ridiculous or the rough e r. Now recall that the rough er is rough because it has a rough surface that is coded with ride his own. So it has a rough ride, his own coated surface. So when we take a look down below notice that all of these little blue dots that we see here on the rough er represent Riva zones okay, including this little dot right here. Those are ribosomes. And remember, the ribosomes are important for building proteins. And so, uh, the newly built proteins that are made, they're actually going to fold and get modified on the inside of the rough end. A plasmid particular inside of the lumen of the plasma. Ridiculous. And so, uh, if these Riva zones here, these little blue dots, if they're making proteins those proteins will end up on the inside of the endo Klasnic. Ridiculous, um, or the Lumet now extending off of the membrane of the rough er, we have this reddish structure that we're showing you here, which is actually the smooth er or the S E r. And so we could go ahead and label this as the smooth e r the smooth and a plasma ridiculous. And notice that the surface of the smooth and a plasma critical, um looks pretty smooth because it does not have any ribosomes. It's free. It's rivals, um, free. And so instead of making proteins, it's gonna be important for making lipids and detoxifying drugs and poisons and so extending off of these, uh, endo plasmid particularly because they're made up of membranes. Thes little membrane bubbles are capable of forming from both the smooth er uh, as well as from the rough er to even though we're not showing you any membrane bubbles budding from the rough er they can come from the rough er too. But these little bubbles that you see here these little vesicles thes little membrane bubbles they're important for carrying materials throughout and connecting interconnecting all of the organelles of the Indo membrane system. Now this year concludes our introduction to the end of plasma ridiculous and the two main types the rough E. R. And the smoothie er, and we'll be able to get some practice applying these concepts as we move forward in our course and continued to talk Maura about organelles of the end of membrane system as well. So I'll see you all in our next video.