While sexual reproduction is all well and good, many plants are able to reproduce a sexually as well. And this a sexual reproduction is sometimes called vegetative reproduction, which results in genetically identical offspring or clones. Now, one way that plants will do this is by shooting off or one way that some plants can do. This, I should say, is by shooting off a stem that will form a new individual in the stem, will travel underground and then produce a new individual like you see there. We call these rhizomes. Now they're compliment, if you want to think of it that way, are stolen, which are stems that shoot off and produce new individuals above ground. So the rhizomes are underground, stolen zehr above ground, and these stolen will also produce Advantis cious roots, which are routes that are generated from this Stine. Now seeds occasionally can our plants can Some plants conform seeds without fertilization, meaning that the, uh, you don't need to have those GAM. It's getting together. You know, the sperm and the egg, so to speak, and forming a seed, which is something we'll talk about a little later in lesson. We call this a pro mixes so seeds forming without fertilization. So this is again going to result in a clone offspring. We're genetically identical offspring. Now. You can also split plants into fragments, and these fragments will develop into or in some plants, these fragments will develop into mature organisms, and we call this fragmentation. This is like the idea of making cuttings or clippings of plants to grow new individuals. Now, Uh, yeah. While this is all great in terms of efficiency, you know, the plants don't have thio get together and go through the hassle of sexual reproduction. It leaves them genetically vulnerable, shall we say, because they're producing genetically identical offspring. There is less genetic variation in the population, and this actually can have disastrous results. Sometimes, for example, bananas now, depending on how old you are, you may or may never have tasted the world's best banana because they don't exist anymore. You see, bananas are grown from clippings, right? They do this fragmentation, and they plant the clippings. And that's how you get in you banana trees. Problem is, they're all genetically identical, and every now and then a fungal infection or something like that will come around and wipe out an entire population of bananas. This is actually happened more than once. And that's why the bananas we have today are not nearly as good as the varieties that we used to have decades ago, which have disappeared due to unfortunate circumstances. So this I like to think of as the tragedy of the banana. Anyways, vegetative reproduction with human involvement, like with those bananas, will be called vegetative propagation. And again, this is making cuttings. And, uh, you know, using these cuttings to grow new organisms and those cuttings air gonna be able to produce roots because they'll have a callous at the wound site. Remember, that's gonna be a mass of cells that air able thio differentiate and develop into, you know, any kind of mature cells. They will be able to produce roots from the site of injury from that, cutting the place where the plant was cut. So enough of a sexual reproduction. Let's get into the reproductive structures of angiosperms, which are again flowers and these flowers are going thio pretty scam. It's embryos, fruits and seeds, and we're gonna talk about all these structures, but first little flower terminology. So you have what are is known as the sea people. These are, uh you can see one here in this image. They're kind of like these green leaves that you see on flowers and you can also see See, pols on this image behind my head. I'm gonna jump out of the way. This right here is a see people, these green leaf like things and they serve as protection for the flower buds. So when you see the flower, But initially it's completely covered by the sea pols, right? And then the flower petals will pop out of that. Generally speaking, see, pols will be green, not always. And when you take all the Cibeles together, So for example, in this image, you can see that we have 1234 and five Cibeles here all of those taken together, including what's hard to make out in this image. But if you've ever seen a flower, you've probably noticed this before this green cup like structure that the Cibeles connect Thio all of that taken together the Sequels the cup like structure is called the CA licks. So this whole thing here is it collects very cool looking word if I do say so myself. Now pedals are modified leaves, and they will surround the reproductive parts of the flower, and usually they're actually there to attract pollinators. We'll talk more about that later, too. And just like the collects is the entire group of Cipel's. The Corolla is the entire group of pedals. So all for of these pedals here, taken together is the Corolla and no thes air not made by Toyota. With that, let's flip the page.