Ciliates

by Jason Amores Sumpter
58 views
Was this helpful ?
0
silly. It's air, the last type of Alvey A lot of that I want to talk about and they get their name from the fact that they're covered in cilia. Hopefully, that makes sense. Uh, they use these cilia for movement and feeding, and mostly they're feeding by preying on bacteria's these air predatory organisms. A cool thing about cilia. They have this deployed micro nucleus that is on Lee used for reproduction. And they have this polyp loi de, um macro nucleus that is used for transcription purposes. So gene expression is happening from that macro nucleus of which there are many copies of the of the chromosomes. Whereas, uh, the micro nucleus is, uh, just has two copies of chromosomes and is on lee used for reproductive purposes. Now they can reproduce a sexually by binary vision and also do this unique form of sexual reproduction. So I kind of wanna talk about that right now and just f y I Here we have two silly. It's, um these are actually a sexually reproducing right there. Uh, about two separate right there. And hopefully you can see kind of might be a little too faint to see, but There's some cilia coming off these cells. No. How does the sexual reproduction work? Well, it involves the micro nucleus, as you might recall. So basically, um, there are, You know, the specifics of this are much more complicated than I want to get into. I really just want you to walk away with kind of like a general sense of how it all works. Don't really need to worry about terminology and specifics. Just you get an idea of, like, another type of life cycle experienced by you Carry it. So, um, there are, you know, well to say, let's put it this way to cells will get together, and they'll sort of form a pair. And you can see they've the two cells air being distinguished here and here by their different colored micro and macro nuclei. So what's gonna happen is these micro nuclei remember these are deployed. They're gonna undergo my ASUs, and we're gonna wind up with, um, these Hap Lloyd. Right? So now these micro nuclei are hap Lloyd thes have exes in them because they're not going to be used. Just these are going to partake in the reproduction. So, um, so some of these. You know, some of these micro nuclei that are generated from my oasis are unused. The cells will actually just exchange. Oh, you know, one micro nucleus or micro nuclear micro nuclei. And that's what we see happening here. The cells are exchanging micro nuclei, and then so we're still Hap Lloyd here, and then those micro nuclei are going to fuse together. So that's that's what we're seeing here. Now, these micro nuclei here and here these are deployed again. Then what's gonna happen after we have a fusion of the micro nuclei we're actually going Thio have a bunch of Might ASUs occur on both the micro nuclei and the macro nuclei theme The unused or sorry, the original macro nucleus is going to disintegrate, Right? So here you see the original macro nuclei, those they're going to disintegrate. These are our new macro nuclei, and these again are micro nuclei that we formed, um, back here back here in this stage and basically thes are going to split up into a bunch of new cells. So we are going to wind up with it. We're actually only being shown to cells. We're actually gonna wind up with four cells from this because so I'm just gonna put like times too right here. Because in each of these cells, right, just clear some space and each of these cells we have to macro nuclei right here, here. And we also have to micro nuclei here, here, here and here. And we're gonna wind up with four cells at this point that each have one micro nucleus and one macro nucleus. And, um, again, these micro nuclei are going to be deployed at this phase again. So and then, of course, the cycle can repeat. So this is how silly it's reproduce sexually by exchanging these by first having their micro nuclei undergo my ASUs, then exchanging half Lloyd micro nuclei, having the new micro nucleus fused with the original micro nucleus and then undergoing a bunch of my toast sis to generate new macro nuclei and, um, and you micro nuclei and then all of those splitting up into new cells. So that is one way to introduce. Or that is one way that you Kerasiotes, um, will perform a type of sexual reproduction. There's many ways that that actually happens, and like we saw a PICO complex is where it gets kind of crazy. You're going between different organisms. Remember, all of this is really just to introduce more genetic variation into the, you know, descendants of these organisms that let's flip the page.