Stramenopila and Alveolata

by Jason Amores Sumpter
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the s a r Played is a modify. Let ICC Super Group made up of the clay Edstrom Anna Pilla Alvey, a lotta and raise area. Many of the organisms contained in this supergroup are photosynthetic, and this is also the group that contains the water molds, which you hopefully realize are not actually molds, because these are not fun guy thes are protests. So again, just another case where there's a bit of a misnomer in the biological terminology, which hopefully you're starting to see. It happens all the time. It's just partisan. It's unfortunately anyhow, stream in a pillow and al violates contained chloroplasts. And those chloroplasts likely arose from secondary end of symbiosis. Which, you might remember, was when Eukaryotic Cell engulfed another eukaryotic cell that had already undergone into symbiosis and already had chloroplast inside of it. Most likely, this was a red algae that was being engulfed, so the stra MENA pilla are mostly made up of photosynthetic algae, and they are both uni cellular and multi cellular organisms. And the, uh, feature that defines this group are these flu Gela that have hair like projections. And you can see in this image of a generic stream in a pillow cell right here that we have this flag Ela coming off the cell and it's got all these little lines coming off of it. Those they're supposed to be the hair like projections. Now. Many species in this group exhibit deployed dominant life cycles and die atom's are no exception. Thes are uni cellular photosynthetic organisms whose key features that they're encased in these protective shells. They're actually made of silicone dioxide so kind of different from a sea shell, for example. But, um, different chemically but kind of the same idea. It's a protective casing for the organism. Now, as you can see in this image here, die Atom's come in a wide variety of morphology. Ease these air all little different shapes and sizes of the DIA, Tom's shells and fun fact. These have actually been arranged by people on slides as an art form. Yeah, believe it or not, people will take brushes that have a single bristle and working in a microscope. Well, actually, poke around little diatoms and arrange them into a collage like you see here pretty, pretty funky stuff, and this is not actually a modern thing. People have been doing this kind of art for, really, surprisingly, a long time. A super cool thing about die Atom's even though they're these tiny little microorganisms, they're actually responsible for, ah, lot of Earth's photosynthesis, and they can actually have a noticeable impact on atmospheric carbon. So when they spring up and, um, you know, there's, ah, large amount of them concentrated in a certain area, you can actually, um, notice a significant dip in the amount of carbon in the air in that area because they're using up so much of it for photosynthesis. Super cool. Now, gold algae like we see here, have a distinctive kind of yellowish brown color. They get that from these yellow and brown carotenoids, which you might remember. Carotenoids are a type of photosynthetic pigment in plants. They're usually like, um, accessory pigment. Um, here they're the distinctive pigment that is coloring the organism that we see. Uh, most gold algae are uni cellular organisms, and even though they contain thes chloroplasts, which just quick reminder came from secondary and a symbiosis, right? So probably a red algae being engulfed. Um, even though they contain these chloroplasts, many of these organisms are actually mix the tropes, meaning that they do photosynthesis. But then they also obtained nutrients like hetero trophy as well, so they mix it up right. That's where the term comes from now, lastly, we have brown algae, which you can see in this image here in a multi cellular form, is a big help stock. But brown algae can also be uni cellular. And, uh, it gets its distinctive color from brown carotenoids similar to gold algae and cool thing about these big help stocks, right? Thes air are large, large structures, and they'll actually be routed often the sea floor. But they want to get close to the surface because that's where the sunlight penetrates best, right? They're going to get the most sunlight at who hired depths. If that makes sense higher up closer to the surface, they're going to get more sunlight there. So they actually have these little gas filled chambers in there photosynthetic regions that caused these kelp stocks to float up to the surface so that they can obtain sunlight more efficiently. And that's why when you see like big clumps of seaweed or kelp or whatever on the beach, and they have all those little bubbles that are pods or whatever that are kind of fun to pop open. Um, that's what those air actually for there to cause the organism to float to assist with photosynthesis now worth noting that brown algae reproduce via alteration of generations and they could be both hetero and ice anamorphic, we saw examples of that in the lesson on protests. Life cycles Now moving on. We have LV, a lotta, and these protests are sort of the defining feature of this. Claytor are these membrane enclosed sacs called alveoli lie that are right under the plasma membrane. And we're actually going to break up our discussion of different types of out Alvey a lotta over a few videos because I want to get into some specifics about some of these subgroups. So first off, let's talk about Dina fragile. It's, um, I have always sort of thought of Dinah fragile. It's as being kind of similar to, uh to die Atom's. And that's mostly because they both kind of have, like, a protective shell, and they're both kind of like a plankton. Basically, um, I'm not saying that they're exactly the same. There's many differences there in different clay aids, merely merely trying to say that there are some parallels between them now, Dina. Fragile. It's air, mostly uni cellular again, mostly aquatic. And they're actually not enclosed by silicon dioxide shell, but by these two cellulose plates. And you can see in this image of a diet, Tom, here we have. Ah, this plate and then this one, too. So this is the two plates coming together, and you can see that over in this image, This diet Tom looks pretty different. Totally normal. That is the way they're supposed to look. Or that's ah, way they can look, I should say they come in many shapes and sizes. Um, now our dining flag. Let's rather have to flow. Gela. Yes, this is sort of where their name is coming from, but these flu Gela are pretty different. One projects outward, and another actually runs around the groove between the two plates. So, um, on this Dina flatulent here, you can probably see this flag Ela coming off of it on it might be a little harder to make out, but there's actually flew Gela running around the side of this organism kind of doing a loop around it. Right? So those are the two Fla Gela of the organism. Now, roughly half of Dinah flag bullets are actually hetero trophic. And about half our photo trophic though many of these photo trophic dina fragile. It's air, actually. Mix the troves, right? So again, um, they perform photosynthesis, But they also are going thio obtain nutrients, huh? Hetero trophic fashion. Now most dina flag. Let's have chromosomes that lack his stones and actually attached directly to the nuclear envelope and a structure called Dino Carry on. And last thing about Dina fragile, it's you can see here an example of their life cycle, which is a hap Lloyd dominant life cycle. Right. So these cells, um, these are some of these cells I should say are hap Lloyd. Let me get new color here. Right. So we've got these nice hap Lloyd cells, right? These two, our hap Lloyd, And they're gonna fuse together and form this deployed cell, right? And and to end train show happily deployed, right? And then this is eventually going thio, uh, go through my Asus and form those half Lloyd cells again. Um, so with that, let's flip the page