Excavata and Archaeplastida (Plantae)

by Jason Amores Sumpter
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Hi. In this video, we're going to talk about some of the key lineages of protests. Up first are the excavator, which are a major group of uni cellular. You carry outs. Many of the species in this group actually lack mitochondria That we'll talk a little bit more about that in a second. And most of them also reproduce a sexually. Now, first up are the diploma nods. Uh, interesting thing about diploma in ads. They lack mitochondria. They actually contain this reduced mitochondrial structure that lacks electron transport. So, uh I mean, first of all, that means that these guys are having anaerobic metabolism, but additionally, it means that they did undergo Sim biogenesis. Right? That did occur. Uh, but now they're mitochondria. Have taken on this other form, you know, evolved to be different than what we know of as mitochondria. Interesting thing about diploma in ads. They have two nuclei you can see in this picture of a diploma in ad. Right here we have two nuclei. This is actually giardia intestine. Alice. Nasty little parasite will make you very sick. Last thing you can see that cell has Thies flag. Ela uses those for motion All right. Next up, the pair base lids can see These guys are right here, and they also lack mitochondria. Use Fla Gela to move. Cool thing about, uh, some of these species is that they will undulate there. Membrane almost, you know, think of. Ah, like a manta ray or something. Swimming. That's sort of what it's like. They'll undulate there membrane to move. Many of these species are parasitic a zwelling. Next up, we have the glina zones, which are the some of the earliest cells known to contain mitochondria. And among them we have Canada plastics, which you can see right here. No lasted. And this is actually trypanosomiasis, which is a a protest that causes a sleeping sickness. And it's transmitted by the African set fly. It's a no, you know, big problem in sub Saharan Africa. This this disease, the sickness. Uh, little interesting thing to note about these cells is that they lack mitochondria. I'm sorry. They have large mitochondria. Not that they lack mitochondria. Next up, we have you glean. It's right here, and these guys contain chloroplasts. Look at that. See these Nice chloroplasts in there. Some of these species are photosynthetic um, many. Our hetero trophic and photosynthetic. So they're mix the troughs mix a trophy just means that they're photosynthetic and hetero trophic. Another major lineage are the our keep last, Etta. Sometimes these air just referred Thio plant I, uh, technically are keep lasted A is like, uh, slightly broader categorization. Um, plant I technically doesn't include red algae, for example. Or if we were in England, I'd say algae, but I'm not gonna do that to you now. Uh, the this group is a another major modify let ICC group of eukaryotes. And it is the group that contains green algae and land plants, which we're gonna talk about in a later trapped er more extensively. Now, these organisms originate from, uh, protests that engulfed cyanobacteria by end of symbiosis. Right. So we're talking about a primary and a symbiosis, not secondary. In fact, a lot of secondary symbiosis happens with red algae and speaking red algae. These are mostly multi cellular organisms. Some contain multiple nuclei, and many reproduce via alteration of generations. Pretty cool thing. They contain this photo synthetic pigment called fico. A wreath rin a wreath rin like a wreath. Recite red blood cell right, So red kind of pigment again. This is a photosynthetic pigments actually masks the green from chlorophyll. That's why these appear red and something pretty cool. The red intensity of these cells actually correlates with depth. Just interesting little fact. Now, green algae are much more similar to land plants, and they have a a similar composition of photosynthetic pigments, tow land plants as well. And they can actually be broken down into two groups. Care fights, which are algae that are most similar. Tow land plants. You can see an example of those there and chlor if ICTs, which are a mix of eunice cellular and multicellular species that have a half Lloyd dominant life cycle, All right with that, let's flip the page.