Apicomplexans

by Jason Amores Sumpter
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AP complexes are a type of Alvey, a lotta that are all parasitic and mostly their parasitic thio animals. Their cells lacks illion flow, Gela, and contain these modified plast IDs which are called a pickup last IDs. Most likely these arose from red algae, which remember, are acquired so they would have been acquired. That is, by secondary end of symbiosis. Now, these cells names basically the name a PICO complex and comes from the fact these cells have what are called a pickle complex structures. So here we actually in this image, we actually have two cells, hopefully can see them. I'll try to outline them right here. And hopefully you can kind of notice that these cells have these tips. Those are the A pickle complex structures and essentially, essentially, these a pickle complex structures are there to help these cells penetrate into their host cell, which, uh, kind of reaffirms the fact that they're all parasites right there. Defining feature is something that enables their parasitism. Now, other cool thing about these organisms is they have kind of interesting life cycles. Um, they reproduce both sexually and a sexually and that actually sometimes move between species to do so. So uhh an AP co complex in that is near and dear to my heart, is this organism called tox? Oh, plasma mosa. It's actually group of organisms. It's a genius. So toxoplasmosis are these cool a PICO complex ins and they reproduce sexually in cats so they have sexual reproduction cats and then they actually will be excreted. So the cat poops him out. They live in the intestines of the cat. They reproduce sexually there, and then the cat poops him out and they'll get picked up by other animals and they'll reproduce a sexually in these other warm blooded animals. And important to note, people are actually, um, able to be infected by these organisms. And what's so cool about toxoplasmosis is they actually go into animals brains, and they change their brain wiring. Basically, um, specifically, they make rodents like we see here, they make rodents stop being afraid of the smell of cat of cats basically so that the organisms like these rodents that get infected with Toxoplasma. So stop being afraid of cats which are their predators, right? And then they'll be eaten by the cats again. And that is how the toxoplasmosis A. We'll get back into the cat, its intestines or they can reproduce sexually again. So kind of this really weird life cycle, right? All revolves around this very strange kind of crazy feature of these organisms where they can rewire a rodents brain to make them stop being afraid of cats. Totally wild. Also kind of side note. But this is sort of they do affect the brains of other animals, too. And this is sort of people have theorized there's no real scientific basis to this. But people have theorized that this is sort of where the idea of the cat lady comes from ranches, all these, you know, a person who has a lot of cats and is like, kind of weirdly obsessed with castle. It's because of the toxoplasmosis have gotten to their brain. They've been converted. You know, I'm just kidding. But just fun, Little weird idea that relates back to these class of organisms. Now, I also want to talk about the parasite that causes malaria Plasmodium and these organisms also a PICO complexions also have in interesting life cycle where they reproduce, um a sexually and form their Hamida sites in humans and then in mosquitoes They form zygotes and produce what are called spores sites, which, you know, you think back Thio alteration of generations. These air kind of like spores. So similar idea. They're a sexual felt there units of the organism that will reproduce a sexually and eventually form comida sites. So let's take a look at this life cycle. So you don't really need to worry too much about the terminology here. All the individual steps I just want you to have, like, a general sense of how this works. So the commedia sites, we'll get together inside the mosquito, they'll form. Um, what is essentially sort of like this? I go again? The tip terminology is different here. Oh, cyst is ultimately what they're forming, which is basically just full of those spores sites and those spores sites will, um, when a mosquito bites a human, the sport sites will be passed into the human's blood stream. They'll make their way to the liver where they'll infect liver cells. That's kind of what's going on here. They're gonna infect liver cells, and they're going thio ultimately form these structures again. Don't worry about terminology too much they're gonna form these structures and liver cells that will then infect blood cells. And those infected blood cells are where the Goa media sites will be produced. Right? And then, of course, mosquito drinks your blood, right? The mosquito will slurp up your blood. And those go media sites will get back into the mosquito where they conform the gametes and the Asus and eventually, more sport sites to infect mawr humans. So pretty crazy life cycle here, right? Not only are we switching between organisms, but within humans first, something has to happen in liver cells, and then something has to happen in blood cells. There's, like, complex stages to this life cycle and totally wild that this organism, right this plasmodium depends on moving between, um, mosquitoes. And it's not just humans, animals in general, but still moving between mosquitoes and, uh, and animals like humans or cows or whatever totally wild, wild life cycle. Um, that, you know, requires the movement between species. So it's kind of ah, weird and cool thing about some of these a PICO complex and species. All right, let's turn the page