once our plant embryo is formed and our seed is all set still has to somehow turn into a fully formed plant. This begins with germination, which is the process by which a plant forms from a seed, and it usually occurs after water is absorbed by the seed through a process known as imbibe Bishan. Now the seed coat, as we've said before, is that protective outer layer and it forms from the Integra mint, which, you might recall, is a structure found in the AV you'll now that outer layer is tough. And so, while sometimes in division will be able to cause enough swelling that it can break the seed coat open and sort of free the plant Thio uh, develop some seed coats are actually too thick to absorb water and require some type of physical penetration in order to Germany. In some cases, this could actually require being, you know, for example, like chewed up and digested a little by an animal or something before the seed can. Actually, Germany now the way a seed will sprout depends on whether the plant is amon a cot or you die. Kat, you die. Cots will have ah, hyper coddle that curves and grows towards the surface and essentially pushes the cotillions out of the soil. So you can kind of see that happening in this diagram here, where this hyper Kotal will be curved and it will grow up and push its way out of the soil. And once it's out of the soil, the CO. Tilden's will actually sprout out of this seed. Now in Monaco, it's This happens a little different. Monica cots will actually push their shoots straight up through the soil, whereas in the case of you die cots thes hyper Kotal right, that embryonic stem is curved and you can almost think of. This is like a process of the plant, like arching its way out of the ground in Monaco. It's This is more of a straight shot, and because of that, Monta cots actually have to have these protective structures that help their emerging roots and shoots. And we call those the Kolia, Rizza and Kulyab Tile depend. Um, and the call your ISA is the first structure to actually emerge from the seed. Hop out of the way here, concede it here, and it is protecting the radical and you might I hope you caught the spelling mistake in this figure. Radical is supposed to be spelled like that. I just like the spelling mistake too much to take it out of the figure because this is basically spelled like, you know, like radical dudes. So anyhow, the polarizer protects the radical, and the Kohlhepp tile protects the flotilla dons, which you can see as thes little structures here inside the kaliope tile. Now, hopefully, as you can see in this image here, here's our seed. It's going to stay where it is, and from here, it's shoots, they're gonna push up, and its roots are gonna push down. So whereas the you die, Kat again did that curving, pushing out of the soil, right? This is gonna have the seeds stay where it is, and it's gonna push it shoots and roots out from that point. Now, how do these seeds get where they need to go? Well, seed dispersal is the technical term for the transport of seeds away from the parent plant. And there is a number of ways this can happen. Uh, you can have wind dispersed your seeds, water also animals as we can see with this dog here that is covered in bors, which are seedpods for plants now. Oh, and here also, you can see these little plumes from a dandelion. Here is the seed, and this tuft on top is to help it help the seed be dispersed by wind. Now, seeds don't germinate right away. When they land in dirt, they actually can enter a period of dormancy. And we'll actually wait to germinate until the conditions are favorable. And in the case of some seeds, this could be years of dormancy before germination. All right, let's turn the page.