Glacier Bay Alaska

by Jason Amores Sumpter
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interactions between organisms in a community can affect that community structure. One way this can happen is is with facilitation, where the presence of some earlier species makes conditions more favorable for a later species. In fact, we'll see this with what are called pioneering species, which are the first hardy species to arrive and colonize during a primary succession. And these were going to help develop soil for later organisms. And they'll be, you know, stuff like like in moss shrubs, various weeds, all common common pioneer species. Now, some less positive interactions are tolerance, where existing species just don't affect the subsequent species that arrives and inhibition, where the presence of one species will actually prevent another species from forming. And here I just want to show some pioneering species moving into this hardened lava flow. In an example of primary succession, and behind me, we have an EP If it this organism actually is living on the surface of this tree. So in a sense, this tree was providing facilitation, it essentially made the conditions favorable for this later species. This EPA fight to arrive. Now I want to briefly take a look. At a great example of primary succession which occurred in Glacier Bay in Alaska. Uhh! You can see sort of, ah, aerial view of this location behind me. And basically what happened is a rapid glacial retreat over the past 200 years exposed this area and led to primary succession. Now, the recently uncovered areas are just gonna have pioneer species. And you can see an example of that here. Now, over time, small shrubs called dry as they're going to inhabit the more developed areas. You could see that happening here, and then they will be replaced by alder. She can see here, then spruce trees will move in, and eventually these areas that air developed with spruce trees will allow for hemlocks to arrive forming these spruce hemlock forests. Now, actually, some of these areas in Glacier Bay are not going to stay. Hemlock, spruce forests there actually do thio the acidity of the see magnum moss that is found there. They're actually going to turn into ponds and Boggs not everywhere, just some of the areas. So with this, hopefully you can see an example of primary succession and how it moves through these various stages. With that, let's go ahead and flip the page