Chemical Signaling

by Jason Amores Sumpter
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Hi. In this lesson, we'll be talking about the endocrine system, which is a chemical signaling system used throughout the body. Now, before we get into the specifics of the endocrine system, I want to review some other types of chemical signaling. Now. Pheromones are chemical signals that air released to the environment and allow organisms to communicate with each other. They're commonly used by insects and mammals, but they are used by other organisms as well. Oughta. Quran signaling is a type of self signaling where a cell actually will secrete a chemical signal that stimulates receptors on its own membrane. And you can see oughta Quran signaling happening right here where this cell is releasing these signaling molecules and they're gonna bind to the receptors on that sells surface. An example of this are the site a kinds that are released by T cells. Thes will actually acts an autocrat signal for those T cells. Now just a Quran. Signaling is also a close range type of signaling, but this is where cells will actually signal their neighbors that they have physical contact with eso. Frequently, this will be signaling through something like gap junctions or in the case of plants. Plasma does model, and you can see unexamined of these neighboring cells communicating with each other through this physical contact. Signaling through those physical connections, Peregrine signaling is when cells release chemicals that will communicate with nearby and neighboring cells. Eso broader range than just a Quran, signaling they don't necessarily have to be in physical contact with one another. And you can see peregrine signaling happening right here, where this cell that's close by to the cell is going to release these chemicals and those air going to stimulate receptor on the other cells membrane. Now these signaling molecules known as local regulators, can actually act as both oughta Quran and peregrine signals, as both of those uh, types of cell signaling will result in, cells secrete ing signaling molecules to their environments. Now nitric oxide is an example of local regulator, and it actually can act as a hormone causing vaso dilation or dilation of blood vessels. And it also acts in the brain as a neurotransmitter, though its effects there are, uh, a little too complicated for us to get into right now. But the point is that thes molecules can have many effects in different parts of the body. Now, another example of peregrine signaling is prostaglandins, which are going to promote inflammatory responses and additionally, the famous hormones insulin glue, Kagen and Samata statin, which are secreted by the pancreas. And we'll be talking about in, uh, this lesson. They actually will also have peregrine effects on the pancreas. So really, I'm just trying to give you these examples to show that these molecules, these signaling molecules, have a really broad array of effects. Now, we're really only going to be talking about, you know, some of the effects, like the main important ones for our purposes and understanding physiology of certain systems. But they you know, they have many, many different effects and, you know, spread all throughout the body. And also, as you can see with these peregrine signals that will act locally, Aziz Well, and finally, we have endocrine signaling. This is gonna be what we focus on. And this is when cells will secrete hormones that actually will travel through the bloodstream to reach distant targets. So, you know these cells, they're gonna be, um, you know, community trying to communicate with cells that are far away from them. That's one of the defining features about endocrine signaling is it allows for long distance chemical communication in the body, and it uses the blood stream sort of a highway for those hormones to get around. Let's flip the page.