Spermatogenesis

by Jason Amores Sumpter
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Okay, everyone. So in this particular lesson, we're going to be learning about Damita Genesis. But in particular, we're going to be learning about Amita Genesis specifically in the mail organism, which is the production of sperm because commedia genesis is going to be the production of gametes and sperm is going to be the male gametes. Now, we have all of these different cell types, and they're going to be the sperm Atago, Nia, the primary sperm a decides secondary spur, Mattis sites permitted and spermatozoa. And all of these are gonna be very important for the production of sperm. And the production of sperm is going to be called sperm a genesis. Now, whenever we learned about give me to Genesis, we simply learned about my oh, sis, right, That one cell divides twice and creates four hap Lloyd cells. But unfortunately, it's not that easy. And we're actually gonna have mawr cells doing the division in sperm a genesis. So first off, you're gonna have these sperm Atago nia cells, which you're going to be these undifferentiated cells in the test ease of the male organism, and they're gonna have to undergo might Oh, sis, before they're actually ready toe, undergo my, oh, sis, and form the GAM. It's. And once they undergo my toe sis, then they're going to turn into these primary for Mattis sites, the primary spam Mattis sites are deployed cells that are completely ready to go through my Asus. So the primary spur Mattis sites are going to be found in the semen avoris to Buell's, it's always hard for me to say, and these they're going to be to Buell's that air found inside of the test ease, and they're gonna be very important for sperm a genesis, because this is where it's actually going to take place. Then, once the primary spur, Mattis sites go through one round of my Asus or my Asus one. Then they're going to turn into these secondary sperm Mattis sites, which are then going to be Hap Lloyd. Because remember, at the end of my Asus one, the cells that air produced are Hap Lloyd. So the secondary spur Mattis sites are hap Lloyd, and they're going to undergo my Asus to the second round of my Asus, and they're going to turn into these sperm it'd, which are undeveloped male gametes. So whenever we think of my Oh, sis, we think the end product is simply these perfect GAM. It's so you would assume that their sperm, but unfortunately they're not. They have to go through a couple more steps to make them into mature sperm. So the immature or undeveloped sperm that are made from my, oh sis are gonna be called these sperm, It'd and they need to undergo more maturation to become the sperm, which are also called spermatozoa. So these were the motile sperm that we think about whenever we think about male gametes. Okay, Now these these processes I have a diagram down here which I'm going to go through so you guys can see what I actually talked about whenever I talked about these particular divisions. But first, I want you to know that the sperm are gonna have these two really important structures that compose them. They're gonna have something called the akra Zone and they're gonna have their flu. Gela, their flu. Jealous, probably pretty self explanatory. This is going to be there micro tubules tale that allows them to swim. And we all know what that looks like, right? And then we're gonna have the Ark a zone, and this is going to be the cap off a sperm cell, and it's going to be used to help digest the outer layer of the egg. And it's really gonna help that sperm actually get into the egg, which we talk more about whenever we learn about fertilization in later lessons. Okay, everyone All right, So let's go down and let's have a look at the actual process that takes place. So that on that outside of the lesson is actually going to be the process of all the different cell divisions that actually make these sperm gametes. So remember, you have these sperm at Ogoni, Um, and they're gonna have to undergo mitosis because they're not entirely ready to go through my Asus quite yet. So the sperm at Ogoni themselves are going to go under my ketosis and create the primary spur. Mattis sites which you guys can see are deployed. So these deployed cells are ready to undergo my Asus one, and then they're going to turn into the secondary spur Mattis sites, and what is going to be deployed E of these secondary spur Mattis sites thes secondary spur Mattis sites are going to be happy, Lloyd cells. Okay, everyone. So these air Hap Lloyd cells because at the end of my Asus one, the cells air Hap Lloyd and then they're going to undergo my Asus two and create the sperm. It'd remember the sperm. It'd Czar Hap Lloyd, But they're underdeveloped. Gam, it's They're not perfectly made yet. They need some alterations, um, maturation. And through the process of sperm, E o Genesis, which is that maturation of the sperm. Then you're going to get what we think of as actual sperm with their tails and their arcas own. So you have to actually add some other pieces, like the flag Ela and the arcas, um, to these sperm a Tibbs to create spermatozoa. Okay, everyone. Now here I have this nice diagram off a sperm, and if you guys were wondering what the Ark is, um actually looks like it's right here and it's depicted in yellow, and it's going to be the cap on the head of the sperm. And like I said, it's going to be used to actually get into the egg, which is actually a difficult process. Okay, guys, Now the other components of the sperm are, of course, going to be the nucleus because that's where it holds its hap Lloyd genetic material that will then fuse with the eggs Hap Lloyd genetic material to make a saigo and then really interesting right here. You can see it says mitochondria in this box that I'm drawing are going to be ah, whole bunch of mitochondria. I believe it's 75 to 100 mitochondria. And do you guys know what they're going to be used for? They're going to be used to power the movement off that flow. Gela. Remember, mitochondria are utilized to make a teepee energy, which you can use to do work. And the work that needs to be done here is going to be the movement off the tail of the sperm. So that's why you have the mitochondria right at the base of the tail so they can power the movement off that flag. L a tail. Okay. Now, what is this part right here? Do you guys know? Well, this is a flow, Gela, right? And whenever we learned about the site of skeleton, we learned that flow Gela are going to be made of micro tubules. So let me spell that right micro tubules and specifically remember, they have a unique structure. They have a nine plus two arrangement off micro tubules. So of MTs. It's just how I'm going to write it, because it's the shortened way to write it. And do you remember what motor protein they use? Remember, they're going to use the dining motor protein so they have a nine plus two arrangement of micro tubules with the dining motor protein. And that's going to be this particular structure that you see here. This is a cross section, and it's gonna have the nine exterior micro tubules and the two interior micro tubules and the dining proteins that move that flag. Ella. Okay, all right, so that's going to be the basic pathway that you utilize to create sperm. So now let's go down and let's talk about the important hormones that we have that actually help with the creation of GAM. It's so just you guys know these particular hormones are used in males and females. But in this particular section, I'm going to specifically talk about how they're used in males to make sperm. Okay, so sperm a genesis, actually begins in puberty off the mail, and then it doesn't end until the males death. So it's going to go from puberty all the way through the rest of his particular life. Okay, and then we do have some important hormones that are utilized for this process. One of them is going to be called the Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone, or G N R H for short. And it's going to be a hormone that's going to be released by the hypothalamus. And it can also be called Just Do you guys know it is also called Oh no, also called Go Nod Oh Libera in Granada. Liberate those. They're going to be the same two hormones just generally, whenever we're talking about the natural hormone that's produced by human beings or other organisms, it's G N R. H. But whenever we're talking about the hormone that is made synthetically and that is a prescription drug, we're gonna be talking about Granada liberal. But they do the exact same thing, okay, and these were going to be created by the hypothalamus, and then they're going to travel to the pituitary gland, specifically the anterior pituitary glands, and this gonadotropin hormone is going to be made to actually turn other hormones on. So this is like a checklist. The gonadotropin hormone is made, it travels to the anterior pituitary, and then it's going to ensure that these L, h and F S H hormones are going to be generated as well. It's like flipping a bunch of switches. So what is the L H Hormone? The LH hormone is going to be the lutin izing hormone. And I'm gonna I'm kind of in the way of the definition, So I'm gonna out of the go out of the picture for a second. So this lieutenant, using hormone is going to stimulate these very interesting cells called Les dig cells. Laid egg cells are very important for male development because they're going to be very important because they create testosterone. So they're going to be found in the semen efforts tubules, where the sperm mermaid and these cells are going to ensure that testosterone is going to be made in the male organism. So testosterone is going to be the male sex hormone. And androgen is another word for a sex hormone or a male sex hormone, and it's going toe obviously help with sperm attic Genesis. And it's also going to help with many of the male characteristics that male organisms have that are specific to that particular organism. Now, Ludin izing hormone is going to work in conjunction with the follicle stimulating hormone. They're gonna work together. So the gonadotropin turns both of these hormones on and together they're going to create the process of sperm, a genesis and testosterone production. So the follicle stimulating hormone is going to stimulate these really interesting cells, which are really cool called Sarah totally cells. But you may have heard of them before. They're commonly also called nurse cells. Nurse cells. It says here that they help with sperm a genesis, but they actually do so much. They are gonna be cells that are found in the seminary Frist tubules that obviously helped build the sperm. That's how they go from sperm motives to spermatozoa. These subtly cells help them develop into mature sperm, and these cells are also going to control the amount of nutrients and hormones that these sperm are going to receive. And these cells can even repair DNA damage if they have thio to ensure that these gametes, um come out perfectly or as perfect as they can get, so that's really interesting. So now what we're going to talk about is how these processes control each other with this hormone called inhibit in inhibit in sounds a lot like the word inhibit. And that is the whole point, because in Hib in is going to actually inhibit the release of F S H or follicle stimulating hormone. So in heaven is going to be made by our nurse cells, and inhibits is given out inside of the male test is to turn the follicle stimulating hormone off. And basically what this is is this is a regulation checkpoint. So whenever the follicle stimulating hormone is stimulating the store totally cells, we know that sperm a genesis is happening. So what this or totally cells are going to do is now they're going to create inhibit, which is going to stop the production of F. S. H. And basically what this is is a control mechanism to ensure that the production of F. S H and the production of sperm and testosterone doesn't get out of hand. It's just a check system to ensure that it doesn't continue or go out of control that sperm, testosterone and all of these processes are going at a continuous even level. Okay, everyone. So that's all we have for this particular lesson on sperm. A genesis. And in our next next lesson, we're going to talk about gay media genesis, but specifically how you make eggs inside of a female. Okay, guys, let's go into our next lesson.