Cerebrum and Cerebral Cortex

by Jason Amores Sumpter
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Hello, everyone, In this lesson, we're going to be going over the major parts off the brain. Okay, so the brain is going to be in the central nervous system. Remember, the central nervous system is going to be the brain and the spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system is everything else. That's not the brain or the spinal cord, but it's still part of the nervous system. So things like spinal nerves and the nerves in your hands and things like that. But we're talking about the central nervous system. So we're talking about the brain and the spinal cord, and specifically we're going to go over the different regions of the brain that you are going to need to know. So obviously, the brain is the most famous organ in the human body, and you've probably seen diagrams like this before. But you may have not known exactly which portions of the brain you were looking at, so we're gonna talk about the forebrain, the midbrain and the hind brain. Now the forebrain is going to include things like the cerebral in the hypothalamus olfactory bulb. It's going to include some other things as well, which are a little bit more detailed that you'll learn more about later. Now the forebrain is going to be this region that you see here in orange and four means in front. And brain obviously means brain, and you may be thinking, but wait, that orange part isn't in the front of the brain, is it? Because this would be the front or the anterior side, and this would be the post cheerier or back side. So if we cut the brain in half, this is what it would look like from the side. View the lateral view. And this should be the front, this portion of your brain here. But you can see that the forebrain wraps all the way around to the post, either side. So you might be saying, Why is it called the forebrain if it's not in just the front? That is because the forebrain, whenever it was developing inside of the fetus, was actually in the front. And whenever you're developing as a fetus, your forebrain is going to be called your pro sin Cephalon, which I know sounds like a lot, and you guys probably don't have to know this information. I just wanted to let you know, um, why it's called the forebrain. That's because in the fetus, that particular region, the pro sense Cephalon that becomes the forebrain, is in the front of your head. And just for just so you guys know Cephalon or so phallic means brain. So whenever you see something like this so phallic, or you see that particular Cephalon so phallic those particular, um, letters in a word, it's generally going to be dealing with the brain. Now we're going to talk about the mid brain. This is going to be a portion off the brains dim, kind of like the upper portion of the brain stem that connects the forebrain to the hind brain, which you can see here in green. So there's going to be some very interesting structures in here, which we will talk about a little bit later. But basically it's connecting the brain stem to the fore brain, and it is going to be used for a whole bunch of different things. It's going to be utilized for eye. Movement is going to be utilized for processing visual information before it's sent to the occipital lobe. It's going to be utilized for coordination and your alertness and your midbrain is also going to have a particular name in development. And this is going to be the Mesen Cephalon, which I do not believe. You need to know this, but I just wanted to let you know that that is what it is called in the developing fetus. And again, you can see that Cephalon that so phallic word in their meaning, brain So your middle brain. Now I forgot to tell you all the different crazy functions that your forebrain can do. Your forebrain is gigantic. It is going to do so many different things. It is obviously the majority of your brain. As you can see there in orange, it's going to control your sleep. It's going to control your reproduction. You're eating your body temperature is going to control your motor functions, your emotional functions, and it's going to do a lot of your interpretation and thinking. Okay, All right. So now let's move on to the hind brain, which is gonna be more composed of the brain stem. But it's going to include theme medulla, oblon gotta ponds and Sarah Bellum, and it's going to be the lower portion of the brain stem. This is a very important portion of your brain because it connects your brain to the rest of your body. This is going to connect your brain to your spinal cord, and you can see your hind brain is here in pink and is going to connect to the spinal cord, which is going to be more inferior so more below the brain. Now your hind brain also has a particular name during development. Its name is kind of funky. Its name is Rahmbo, Aram Ben Cephalon, and again you can see the Catholic word in their meaning. Brain. Okay, now it's going to do, Ah, whole bunch of things. Most of your cranial nerves are going to come off of your hind brain. It's going to control some eye movement as well. Your facial sensations, Your balance. Ah, lot of your voluntary movement is going to be, um, controlled through your hind brain. It's also going to control your heart rate, your blood pressure reflexes, your breathing, things like that. Okay, so now let's go down and let's talk about a more specific region of the brain called the cerebral. Your cerebral is going to be in your four brain. This is the largest portion of your brain and probably the most famous portion of your brain. Now, this is a large outer part of the brain that is going to include the cortex. The cortex is going thio surround the cerebral, um, and other sub cortical structures like the hippocampus. I So your cerebral, Um, whenever you think of what a brain looks like, you're looking at the cerebral. This is gonna be 85% of your brain, and it is divided into two hemispheres, a left and a right hemisphere, and it's gonna have all sorts of different things inside of it that are going to do different functions. Your cerebral is very famous for your thinking. You're planning your reasoning skills, your interpretation, off information and senses. And it's also very important for language. So this portion of your brain is basically what makes you intelligent. For the most part, it's the thinking part of your brain. Okay, So, like I already said, it is going to be divided into two hemispheres left and a right, but it's gonna be connected. We can't have those two hemispheres not talk to each other. they need to communicate with one another, and they're going to utilize the corpus callosum. This is going to be a bundle of nerve fibers called axons, that transmit information between the hemispheres. This is very important. This allows the left side of your brain to talk to the right side of your brain. And in fact, the left and right sides of your brain do have slightly different functions, so they do need to communicate with one another, so it's very, very important. Now the cerebral cortex is going to be the outer layer of the cerebral, composed of gray matter. This is gonna be the outermost layer of the brain. Most likely you're going to see whenever you think of a brain. Now I want to show you a picture. Let me get out of the way here. I'm going to scroll down a little bit. Do you see this arrow right here? It's going to be pointing to the corpus callosum, which is going to kind of be right here, which is going to allow those two hemispheres of your brain, your left and right hemispheres of your brain to connect with one another and to communicate with one another so that they can share information. So that's a good visual representation off your corpus callosum. Okay, so now the cerebral, um, is quite large, right? It's 85% of your brain. It's going to be chopped up into four different lobes. So each side, the left and the right are going to have a frontal lobe, a parietal lobe, the temporal lobe and an occipital lobe that are all going to have unique functions. The frontal lobe contains areas involved in decision making and your primary motor cortex. So this is gonna be the cognizant part of your brain that's actively making those decisions. The parietal lobe is involved in sensory information processing, and it contains the primary somatic sensory cortex. Okay, so the parietal lobe, whenever you touch something, it is actually looking through all the sensory information in processing the sensory information. Whether that site taste, smell, touch anything like that, your parietal lobe is taking care of that. Okay, Then we have our temporal lobe, which is going to contain the regions involved in hearing and language and visual processing. So whenever you're listening to language or you're speaking your temporal lobe is going to be involved in that process. Now, finally, we have the occipital lobe, which is the visual cortex. This is where the majority of your visual information is going to be processed and understood. So it's utilized and processing visual information. Now, if I scroll down, you can actually see these different lobes that we talked about. Here we have the frontal lobe, which is going to be here in this kind of brownish color, and you can see that there's also the Samata mo se mato motor cortex, your Samata motor cortex or your primary motor cortex. Same thing. Just two different names is going to be what plans and executes your bodily movements. I'm using it a lot right now when you're running around or you're doing something, you're using your primary motor cortex to do those motions. Now we also have the tomato sensory cortex, which is going to integrate sensory information from the body, and it's going to combine all the sensory information to put together a picture of what's happening. Okay, and then we have the parietal lobe, which you can see here in this purple color. And remember, the parietal lobe is also utilized in that sensory information. And it's going toe hold the somatic sensory cortex. So these two are going to be together. Okay. And then we have our occipital lobe in green, which is going to be utilized for your visual information and processing. And then we're going to have the temporal lobe here in blue, which is going to be used for language and auditory information. Okay, everyone, that's all I have for this particular section on the brain. Just remember, the brain is going to be part of the central nervous system, and it is going toe have a forebrain, midbrain and hind brain. And the cerebral is going to be the largest part of the brain, 85% of the brain. And it's going to have these different lobes that have different, unique functions. Okay, everyone, let's go on to our next topic.