Lung Anatomy

by Jason Amores Sumpter
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the throat at the back of the mouth is known as the pharynx, and it's a shared passageway for food, air and water. Which is why I'm sure we've all had the nasty experience of having Cem food. Or maybe some water go down our wind pipe and the wind pipe is the trachea. This is what brings air from the pharynx to the lungs, and it's actually supported by these rings of cartilage that are kind of C shaped. Basically, if you have the tube, the ring of cartilage kind of runs around it. Like such now. The beginning of the trachea is called the larynx, and this is sometimes called like the voice box or the vocal cords, because it contains what are known as the vocal folds, which is how I'm talking to you right now. Now the trachea is going to branch when it gets to the lungs and these two branches air known as the primary bronc. I now bronc I our branches from the primary bronchi I So this primary bronchi air gonna branch off into many smaller bronc I that will diffuse throughout the lungs, and they're going to be supported by cartilage similarly to the trachea. Now, the thing about, uh, thes bronc eyes, they they're gonna be getting smaller and smaller. These it's, you know, think of it like a tree. There's going to be, you know, thick branches, and then smaller and smaller branches will come off of that. The smallest branches of these bronchi bronc I are called bronchial walls, kind of like arteries arterials or veins, and Daniel's got bronc I and bronchi ALS. So these are the smallest branches, and these guys are not supported by cartilage. They're supported by smooth muscle, and this means they can collapse, which is a bad thing. Now the lungs are the organs of respiration in humans and, um, you know, mammals. So their job is going to be to inhale air and absorb that oxygen and exhale the waste carbon dioxide. Now, the ends of these bronchi ALS are known as Alvy lie. They kind of looked like Bunches of grapes. Um and this is where the gas exchange between air and blood is going to occur. This is thief thin layer of respiratory tissue that's going thio. You know, actors theme the act as thedetroitbureau for surface and not only is this a thin layer? It's also Aquarius, and it's going to be that acquis interface between theme air and the tissue that is going to be the surface that the gas is passed through. And they're going to make their way to these cap Hillary beds that surround DLV lie. So here you can see the Alvey lie, these little pink sacks that kind of looked like Bunches of grapes. And they're surrounded by cap Ilary beds. As you can see in this particular image right here, I said that they have a new acquis layer. Now, remember that water has surface tension. So in order to avoid these Alvey lie collapsing. Remember, bronchi ALS can collapse. These Alvey lie are even more prone to collapsing where they would be. Except they have this stuff called surfactant, which is a mix of phosphor lipids and proteins that air produced by some l've Eli and what they do is reduce surface tension. So they're gonna help prevent the Alvey lie from collapsing, and we need the Alvey lie to not collapse so that gas exchange can keep occurring at that surface of the respiratory tissue. So that is the basic anatomy of the respiratory system. However, there's one important piece to the puzzle here, and it's this muscle called the diaphragm. It's kind of like a sheet of muscle that runs through the middle of your chest, and it separates the top half of your torso from the bottom half, and we call that top half the thoracic cavity. Like the area. All the area in there is the thoracic cavity. You know, that's where your lungs and heart are gonna be located, for example, and the bottom half underneath the diaphragm is called the abdominal cavity cavity, and that's like where your guts are, right, your intestines and that sort of stuff. So the diaphragm runs across, and it's this sheet of muscle, and it's going to be what's responsible for pulling air into the lungs. It's going to contract and and pull down, and this is going to create negative pressure that pulls air into the lungs will talk about the physiology of this later in a different lesson. But those are the main components of the respiratory system the, uh, the trachea, the bronchi, the lungs and the veal. I is that important place where gas exchange is going to happen. With that, let's flip the page