Heart Anatomy

by Jason Amores Sumpter
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the heart is a muscular organ that contracts to pump blood through the body, and it contracts just like you'd contract a muscle like the one in your arm. Of course, it's a different type of muscle, and we'll get into the details of that. But it's a similar idea now. The heart has various chambers in it, and these chambers air called atria and ventricles. The singular of Atria is atrium, if you're curious and ventricles would be ventricle, no special Latin, singular plural there. So the job of Atria is to receive blood from veins and ventricles, received blood from Atria and also pumped that blood into arteries and separating. Atria and ventricles are what are known as a trio ventricular valves. These are valves similar to, uh, you know, like what we saw in veins, and their job is to prevent backflow from the ventricle to the atrium. Blood needs to flow from the atrium into the ventricle, not the other way. In fact, if blood moves across the valve, this is a bad thing. It's known as a heart murmur, and usually it's due to some type of damage or infection in the valve. Now, between the right Atria. A right atrium and right ventricle is the try, Cuspide Valve. Don't worry about memorizing this name. And on the left between the left atria and left ventricle, we have the mitral valve again. You don't need to memorize this name. Now. There are also valves that prevent back flow from the ventricles to the arteries and these air called semi lunar valves. These again, they're gonna be on the There's gonna be one on the right and one on the left. The valve that separates the the right ventricle from the pulmonary artery is known as the pulmonary valve and the valve on the left that separates the left ventricle from the aorta is Aziz the aortic valve. Again. Don't worry about memorizing these names. Just know semi lunar valves and atrial ventricular valves just need to understand. So the basic idea behind what their purpose is now looking at the heart, you can see that in this diagram, right and left are backwards. That's going to be fairly typical because these diagrams air set up as if you are looking at someone's heart, right? Like you're facing them and looking at their heart. So everything is going to be married, right? That's why the right the stuff labeled right is technically on the left side of the page, and the stuff labeled left is on the right side of the page. So the three heart has various arteries and veins connected to it. That will lead Thio Pulmonary, uh, circulation and systemic circulation. The pulmonary artery is going to be part of the pulmonary loop, and it's going to deliver de oxygenated blood from the heart to the cap Ilary beds in the lungs. The pulmonary veins take that oxygenated blood from the cap. Larry beds and lungs bring it back to the heart. So this is all part of our pulmonary loop or Pullman pulmonary circulation. Whatever term is easier for you to remember. Now the aorta is going to deliver that oxygenated blood that's coming from the lungs to the tissues of the body and the vein that's going thio deliver de oxygenated blood from the cap, Ilary beds and the body tissues back to the heart. Uh, it's actually going to be two veins. Their plural name for the two of them is V. Nike Ave. It's kind of a mouthful. There basically broken down into what's called the superior vena cava and inferior vena cava. And it's not because one's better than the other. The names superior inferior come from the fact that one is found above the other. The superior one is located above the inferior one. So looking at our diagram here, let's just go ahead and trace the path of each loop of circulation. So de oxygenated blood is going to be delivered by the V. Nike. Avi Right here it's written singular, but because it doesn't really matter which one we're talking about for our purposes. Inferior, superior. Both gonna bring that de oxygenated blood in to the Remember, this is going to be the right side, so it's going to deliver it to the right atrium. The right atrium is going to move that blood into the right ventricle, and the right ventricle is going to send it through the pulmonary artery to the capillary beds in the lungs. From there, it will be theocracy. Gin ated blood will be delivered from by the pulmonary vein to the left atrium, which is going thio. Move the blood into the left ventricle and from the left ventricle it's going to be pumped through the aorta and delivered to the tissues, and that is going to be our pulmonary loop. And of course, our systemic loop takes us from the aorta all the way down through these tissues through all these cap Hillary beds Back up all these veins and delivers are de oxygenated blood from the vena cava to the right atrium. So these are our two circuits of, uh, blood circulation, and they basically each have a purpose to fill. The pulmonary circuit, as we've seen, is there. In order Thio oxygenate the blood right, absorb oxygen from the lungs and to get rid of the Waste Co two that gets picked up in the tissues. So the systemic circulation, the job of systemic circulation, is to deliver that oxygen to the tissues and to pick up that Waste CO two from cellular respiration and bring it to the lungs so that the body can get rid of it. So those are two circulatory loops. Let's flip the page and look at what's going on in the blood