Biome and Biomass

by Jason Amores Sumpter
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Okay, everyone in this lesson, we're gonna be talking about bio MEMS. Now what? Our BIOS. You've probably heard this word before, but what's the exact definition? What does it mean? So a bio, um, is gonna be basically a very, very, very, very large community of organisms and their environment. So this is going to be a distinct formation of flora and fauna. Remember, this means biotic things. Living organisms, flora means plants, fauna means animals or other living things, like bacteria or protests or anything like that. So a distinct formation of the flora and the fauna and a biotic factors remember these air non living factors. These were going to be things like rocks and water sources and the atmosphere and types of precipitation and things like that. These air, non living characteristics of an environment, and they're gonna be found across different areas of the planet. So they are very distinct areas of our planet. So very, very large communities off organisms and their environment. It's important to realize that a biodome can contain different ecosystems. A bio is not an ecosystem. An ecosystem is found within a bio. Um, so a bio, um, can hold many ecosystems. For example, a great example of a bio, um, would be a marine bio. Um, so a salty aquatic bio. Um, and this may include many different ecosystems, like a coral reef ecosystem and open ocean ecosystem. Maybe a shoreline ecosystem or a kelp forest ecosystem. Maybe those air all in the same bio. Um, but there are many different ecosystems. Remember that an ecosystem is the interact action between living organisms and their surrounding very specific environment. And those interactions can be found in a much larger bio. Um, so just remember that this is different from ecosystems. Ecosystems can be long to the same bio, but they might be different ecosystems. So bio Miz, bigger than an ecosystem. Okay, Now it's important to understand that the ecosystems and bio MEMS are constantly in a state of disturbance, meaning that they are constantly changing and their temporary changes in the environment that can change the way a particular ecosystem works inside of that bio thes air constantly happening because obviously our planet is never static. It's always dynamic. Something is always changing. And for things like global warming, these air dramatically changing the ecosystems and the bios that they are a part of. So if you look at this really beautiful map that we have off the continents of our planet, you can see that the bios are going to be depicted in different colors so you can have the tundra in this kind of teal color right here the tundra. You can have a grass savannah in this light green. And then there's also, you know, the dry step or the arid desert, these air all different types of bio MEMS, but they may contain different ecosystems within them. Now, whenever you're looking at a bio water scientists trying to understand about that particular bio. So the things we want to discover when we are investigating a bio is we want to understand the bio mass that that bio, um creates or that bio holds what is biomass? So biomass is going to be the total mass off organisms in a given area. So the entire mass, all of the bodies off the living things in a particular bio mawr ecosystem. So if you're looking at the biomass of a ecosystem of an ecosystem, you're looking at the actual mass or all of the bodies of every living thing inside of that ecosystem. Now, granted, this is probably we can't actually determine this, right? We're not going to go through and pick out every single organism and determine their mass, because this is also going to include a lot of microscopic organisms as well, so it's almost impossible to do. Right? So we estimate this and we're going to estimate this via understanding the above ground biomass. So all of the living things that exist above ground that are very easy for us to see because obviously there are organisms that live inside of the dirt, right? Ah, lot of microbes live inside of the dirt. You're gonna have borough ing animals. You're going have things like earthworms and mold, and you're gonna have the roots of trees and plants that air all down there under the earth, which would be incredibly difficult for us to measure. So we used the above ground biomass to kind of estimate the entire biomass. So again, the above above ground biomass is going to be the total mass of living plants and organisms, excluding the roots and excluding the other organisms that live inside of the dirt. So we're going to estimate the biomass utilizing the above ground biomass. And we're also going to measure something important called the Net Primary productivity, or NPP, off a bio or of an ecosystem. Now, why would we measure this? What are we measuring? Basically, you're measuring the productivity off a bio or an ecosystem. You could do this for ecosystems as well. So what are we looking at? So, in net primary productivity, what we're measuring is the rate that plants in an ecosystem produce energy minus the energy that they consume during cellular respiration. So basically, this is going to be the energy plants make. So what is the energy that plants make? How do they make energy? Remember, they do the process of photosynthesis. They're going to make sugars utilizing sunlight, energy via carbon dioxide and other things. So this is actually measuring photosynthesis. So the energy that plants make minus the energy that plants utilize because, remember, Yeah, plants make their own energy, but they also have to utilize that energy as well. They also do cellular respiration. So this is looking at cellular respiration. Now, how would we measure this? How do you measure the amount of energy that a plant uses and the amount of energy that a plant makes. How do you determine the NPP of an ecosystem? Well, the way that we're going to do this it was is we're going to utilize the above ground biomass estimate and we're going to determine how much co two thes plants take out of the atmosphere for photosynthesis versus how much co two the plants put back into the atmosphere for cellular respiration. Remember photosynthesis, the creation of energy. Take CO two out of the atmosphere and cellular respiration utilizing that energy is going to be putting CO two back into the atmosphere. So this is gonna be the amount of co two taken from the atmosphere minus the amount of CO two put back into the atmosphere. That is gonna be how we estimate the NPP. Normally, this is normally how we're going to estimate this now. Why would we care about the NPP? Well, the NPP is going to tell you how a bio or an ecosystem is functioning. Obviously, if the net primary productivity is very high, there's a lot of photosynthesis going on. Maybe there's a high amount of plants in this area. Maybe we're looking at the tropical Amazon rainforest. The NPP of that forest very, very, very high, right? It's a very productive environment. While you could be looking at the I don't know, maybe a certain particular um, forest in winter that productivity's not going to be very high, especially a forest in North America. In winter, when all the leaves air gone, there's not going to be very high productivity because there's not a lot of photosynthesis happening. So MPP is definitely tied to the season and the location off that particular ecosystem, and it's going to tell you the health of that ecosystem as well and how productive the plants or the primary producers of that ecosystem or bio, are functioning. So this is very important for the health off the bio and the ecosystems within it. Okay, everyone, let's go on to our next topic