lakes and ponds, air standing bodies of water that will have variable salinity, oxygen concentrations and nutrient availability. On one end, you'll have a Liga trophic lakes, which have low primary productivity, meaning not a lot of photosynthesis going on because they have poor nutrient content. However, these lakes tend to have high oxygen concentrations. On the other end, you'll see you trophic lakes, which have high primary productivity because they have high nutrient concentrations. However, these usually have low oxygen levels, and I'll explain why now? Not all you trophic lakes start out. You trophic lakes, some lakes under goat eutrophication, as it's called, where nutrient rich stuff gets into the lake. Often you'll see, you know, nutrient rich fertilizers on agricultural lands or something, getting into the runoff water and finding their way into a lake. And they'll just inject a bunch of nutrients into the lake, which will lead to an explosion in primary productivity. So, you know, like a big algae bloom or something to that effect, all of this new plant matter or I should say photosynthetic organisms, you know it's gonna be a lot of algae. All of these, uh, new photosynthetic organisms are going to eventually die, which is going to feed the decompose er populations. Now all of those d composers are going to eat all the dead algae and whatever and they're going to consume oxygen in the process. So basically, you know the high primary productivity leads to high amounts of decomposition which are going to lead thio low oxygen levels. Now, most of the plants that you'll find in lakes and ponds are gonna be in the littoral zone. And that's because this is going to be the area that gets the best light. Remember, light will penetrate all the way to the bottom of the littoral zone. And bordering the littoral zone is what's known as the limb net IQ zone. This is basically like this surface waters away from shore of a lake now lakes and ponds. Also, I should mention have a benthic zone just like all aquatic biomass. And this benthic zone is going Thio have lots of sediment and dead organic matter and be fairly, uh, nutrient rich. If it has lots of dead stuff in it now, wetlands are amazing. Bio Uhh! You know, we often over overlook them or kind of write them off because we're just like they're just Boggs or swamps or marshes. Gross, right? Well, actually, they're really important because they have this amazing ability to filter pollutants from water. They're kind of like nature is Britta. They basically I mean, really like they, you know, they clean water, making it potable. Uh, now, wetlands are basically just land that's been saturated with water, and it doesn't have to be permanent. You know, they could be seasonal, like they get inundated with water on a, you know, some sort of regular seasonal basis. And what you'll see with wetlands is they'll, you know, they'll they'll often have a lot of what's called emergent vegetation. So here, you know, I'm kind of just like encircling the more watery part, right, and you'll see, got some lily pads here and here on the sides, right. Those were all like, floating plants, this stuff all around. That's what we call emergent vegetation. It's gonna, you know, shoot its roots are rather it's shoots up out of the water and, um, you know, have a portion of its, uh, body be above the water surface. So, you know, you often see things like cat tails and grasses and that sort of stuff, Uh, that sort of emergent vegetation in wetlands. Now, streams and rivers are going to be flowing bodies of our flowing water, and usually they're gonna be headed toward an ocean or a lake or some other river. So you know, they'll join together, and eventually that river will go to some lake or ocean or something like that. Now, what characterizes these by OEMs is the volume of water flow. How much water is flowing, right? Do you have just, you know, a little trick Lee Stream? Or is this a rushing torrent of a river? And you know, one interesting thing to note about water flow is it will actually affect the oxygen content. So faster flowing water has lower oxygen levels in general. Now, when a river meets the sea, it conform an estuary. This is a semi enclosed body of brackish water, brackish water, meaning a mix of freshwater and saltwater. And it's basically a transition between rivers and the ocean. And here you can see a new estuary that's part of the Amazon. So this is the Amazon or, you know, the estuary of, uh, part of the Amazon River coming in and meeting the Atlantic Ocean here, and with that, let's go ahead and flip the page.