biodiversity is so important because it increases productivity in so many ways and it helps prevent extinction. It almost is like a positive feedback loop now. The reason for that is biodiversity increases the efficiency of resource use with more species to take advantage of every possible resource and niche. So with mawr biodiversity, you're going to If mawr efficiently take advantage of all the opportunities available in the environment and this greater net resource use will actually lead to greater net production of biomass, hence the positive feedback loop. The greater biodiversity leads to greater resource use, which leads to more biomass, which is going to feedback and cause more biodiversity. Now biodiversity can also help with facilitation, which is when the presence of certain species allow other species to grow and thrive in an area resistance, which is the degree to which a community is affected by a disturbance and resilience, which is the rate at which community recovers from a disturbance. And you can see here one of those recoveries in this community after a fire. And now here are sorry, this community right after fire and now on this side after the recovery and just to point out how there are really tons of niches to be filled. I want to just point to the fact that there are species of fish that literally formed their whole community based off eating hippo poop. So there's so many resource is and niches available, and they're things that you're not even thinking of probably like, for example, a large mammals feces that supports, like this whole community of fish. So what's the key to protecting biodiversity? Well, sustainability. Sustainability is really the key to our continued existence on this planet. I mean, remember, the Earth has a carrying capacity for humans, and sustainability is basically this property we see in biological systems that allows them to remain productive and diverse almost indefinitely. Basically, sustainable practices, um, would require that humans Onley use resource is at the rate which they could be replaced. So not over exploiting things like we have a habit of doing now. Other ways in which humans air protecting biodiversity is in seed banks. Seed banks are long term seed storage that will help preserve the genetic diversity of plants as some big agribusinesses go and destroy that genetic diversity for capitalist gains. Now XY to conservation is the preservation of endangered species outside their natural habitat. This is happening in zoos and, uh, you know, other types of preservation efforts all over the world. Now, it's probably, in some senses, mawr ideal, though sometimes more difficult to have a protected area of biological importance where you can conserve species in their natural habitat. We call these, uh protected is nature reserves and some nature reserves could be called zone reserves, which are large res regions that air mostly undisturbed by humans. Now, another way we can help with, uh, you know, thes sort of protection of our environment is with wildlife movement corridors, which will connect habitats that air separated by human activity and therefore, break down some of those barriers, break down some of that fragmentation, undo that fragmentation and connect populations to increase diversity. And you can see a beautiful example of wildlife movement corridor here that crosses highway, which would normally be very dangerous for any animal. However, this nice grass bridge provides a wonderful access point now, in um, or extreme form. You can also have assisted migration where you deliberately move plants or animals to a different habitat. So here we are at the end, and I just want to say what a lovely journey it's been and that I hope you guys now see the importance of protecting our natural earth. And now that you understand how incredibly rich, complex and amazing it is, you know don't let places like this disappear. It's up to us to protect them. No one else is going to do it. So with that, say good night and good luck.