Methods for Analyzing DNA Practice Problems
Gel electrophoresis is a method for the separation and analysis of proteins, DNA, and other macromolecules based on their size and charge. Which of the following factors does not affect the macromolecules' speed of movement?
Which of the following types of electrophoresis method is most commonly used to separate amino acids?
In eukaryotes, to contain the DNA inside the nucleus, it is wrapped around nuclear proteins called histones. The DNA, along with the histones, is then wrapped into a 30 nm spiral called:
Which of the following sequences represents the complementary DNA strand for the following template strand?
Template strand: 5'- ATGCGTACGG - 3'.
What is the result if the alleged father is excluded as the biological father based on STR analysis?
In a paternity dispute, if the child's DNA profile matches the alleged father's profile at all tested loci, what is the likelihood of paternity?
STR analysis is a powerful tool for DNA fingerprinting, as it allows for high discrimination power and can be performed on small or degraded DNA samples. It has become a standard method in forensic science and is widely accepted as a reliable and accurate method for identifying individuals. Which factor can affect the accuracy of STR analysis?
STR (short tandem repeat) analysis is a widely used method in DNA fingerprinting or profiling. DNA fingerprinting is a technique used to identify individuals by analyzing their DNA.
How many STR loci are typically analyzed in forensic DNA profiling?
What is the minimum number of alleles required to declare a match between two DNA samples in STR analysis?
Which of the following terms refers to the sharing of a segment of DNA between two or more individuals that is inherited from a common ancestor without any intervening recombination events?
It is a measure of the risk of metabolic disorders, such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease, based on the combination of waist circumference and fasting triglyceride levels:
What is the expected frequency of finding a clone representing the insulin receptor gene in a genomic library made from liver tissue, given that the size of the gene is approximately 150 kb and the human genome comprises 3.2 billion base pairs?
- The genomic library made from liver tissue contains a total of 100,000 clones.
- After screening the library, 20 clones are identified to contain the insulin receptor gene.
Which of the following libraries is expected to have the highest diversity of sequences?
You have constructed two different libraries from the human liver tissue: the genomic library and cDNA library. What difference can you expect in the genomic and cDNA libraries of liver tissue?
Select the accurate statement about the roles played by the leading and lagging strands during DNA replication.
Northern blot analysis can help detect diseases by measuring the expression level of genes. Which of the following is measured by this method to determine gene expression?
Suppose in a marker located from 110 - 175 base pairs, two peaks are generated in the electrophoretic analysis graph. What does this result imply?
A person cannot inherit an allele from a parent if that parent does not have that allele, which is a basic concept of genetics known as the:
It is a statistical calculation that measures the likelihood that a man is the biological father of a child, based on the DNA profiles of the child, the mother, and the alleged father:
The Combined Paternity Index (CPI) serves as the basis for determining the percentage probability of paternity. Suppose we have the following PI values
Gene 1: 5.34
Gene 2: 4.21
Gene 3: 2.13
Gene 4: 3.54
Which of the following gives the correct CPI value?
It is a program developed by the FBI to store and analyze DNA profiles for forensic purposes:
Which of the following is a tool used in genetics research to study gene expression patterns in organisms?
Suppose we have the graph results of the electrophoretic analysis of the markers we want to investigate. How can we identify if a gene has a heterozygous genotype?
Suppose there are four men claiming to be the father of a certain boy who grows up in an orphanage. What will be the basis for the exclusion of a man as the father of a child?
In an orphanage, a man showed up claiming that he is the biological father of a certain child. A laboratory conducted genetic testing to investigate his claim. Which of the following results would confirm that he is indeed the child's father?
In calculating the Paternity Index (PI) for a gene tested, what PI value implies that there is no information on the contribution of the non-maternal allele?
Consider the paternity index (PI) of the following markers:
D8S1179 = 4.65
vWA = 1.57
CSF1PO = 4.00
D16S539 = 4.92
Using the Combined Paternity Index (CPI), what is the probability that the person being investigated is the father of the child?
Consider the following genotype frequencies for three STR markers:
vWA (12/13) = 0.012
D1653 (11/16) = 0.004
FGA (8/8) = 0.018
How many people are expected to have these genotypes?
Suppose for a Short Tandem Repeat (STR) marker TH01, alleles 15, 16, 17, and 18 have frequencies of 0.015, 0.134, 0.16, and 0.21, respectively. What is the frequency of 15/18 heterozygosity?
Gel electrophoresis is a technique for separating DNA, RNA, or protein mixtures by molecular size in the laboratory. Which of the following statements about the gel electrophoresis procedure is incorrect?
The Polymerase Chain Reaction is the process of amplifying a specific DNA template with a polymerase enzyme and a variety of primers supplemented with free nucleotides. If the number of double-stranded DNA pieces is doubled in each cycle, how many cycles have to be completed to get 16 DNA strands?
The DNA fragments are separated based on their sizes and charges in gel electrophoresis. The standard reference which contains DNA fragments of known lengths is called:
In the Sanger sequencing procedure;
Statement A: When too little ddNTP is applied, bigger fragments are not easily seen on the sequencing gel.
Statement B: When too much ddNTP is added, shortened fragments are not easily seen on the sequencing gel.
Which of the following options is correct?
Taq DNA polymerase is the most commonly used enzyme in PCR. Which of the following is a required cofactor for thermostable DNA polymerase?
The molecules that need to be separated are pushed through a gel with tiny pores by an electrical field in gel electrophoresis. Which of the following statements is true regarding gel electrophoresis?
Which of the following genomic libraries would be ideal to find the human gene that codes for the protein Albumin, which is exclusively expressed in hepatocytes?
Which of the following statements best describes the role of dideoxynucleotide in DNA sequencing?
PCR is used to amplify a DNA sequence many times, resulting in sufficient DNA copies for analysis. Which of the following techniques is used to visually evaluate the PCR reaction?
The process of determining the order of the nucleotides in DNA is DNA sequencing. Which of the following is not used in DNA sequencing technology?
DNA-based markers have many advantages over genetic markers. Which of the following advantages of DNA markers is incorrect?
This assay is helpful in determining if eukaryotic transcription factors bind to the DNA fragment?
If a person inherits a genetic mutation that causes a certain disease, then the patient can usually manifest genetic diseases like Sickle cell anemia, cystic fibrosis, and some cases of early-onset Alzheimer's disease. The three single-gene mutations associated with early-onset Alzheimer's disease are:
In a genome-wide association study (GWAS), the genomes of what types of individuals are analyzed?
Triple-negative breast cancer comprises 15–20% of all breast cancer cases and affects women with a mutation in the BRCA1 gene more than other breast cancers. TNBC is breast cancer that lacks or shows low levels of:
Allele-specific oligonucleotide hybridization, or dot blotting, is a method for testing known mutations. Identity and correctly describe the version of this technique that is widely used for the routine screening of genes that have numerous mutant alleles including α-thalassemia, β-thalassemia, and cystic fibrosis.
Which of the following is a method of testing a population to identify individuals who either have a genetic disease or are carriers of the disease and may pass it on to their children?
Which of the following statements is false about the difference between manual and automated DNA sequencing?
Newborn genetic screening refers to the laboratory tests which are performed to detect a set of known genetic diseases. Which of the following samples is needed from a newborn infant who will undergo genetic screening?
Which of the following uses of genetic testing is appropriate for identifying crime suspects, determining the biological relationship between two people, and for other legal applications?
If a scientist wants to study the genetic causes of various unrelated conditions, which of the following genetic testing is the most appropriate?
Genetic testing has various potential benefits. These can include helping people make informed decisions in their health management and eliminating the need to undergo unnecessary and expensive tests. Which of the following ethical concerns must be addressed first before conducting genetic testing?
How can the genome-wide association study provide a comprehensive understanding of human genetic diseases?
Which of the following statements about preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is correct?
The allele-specific oligonucleotides (ASOs) are short and single-stranded DNA fragments that can hybridize into their complementary alleles. Under proper conditions, ASO will:
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the common regions of genetic variation among people. Scientists used them as _______, helping them locate the genes responsible for specific diseases.
Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis is used to detect the location of a specific gene associated with a specific disease. Which of the following is considered one of its disadvantages in detecting genetic mutations?
Restriction sites for which of the following restriction enzymes get eliminated in the β-globin gene in sickle-cell anemia?
Which of the following libraries only contains genes that were expressed in cells at the time the library was created?