Genetic Cloning Practice Problems
How many fragments are formed when the bacteriophage lambda genome is digested with XhoI only?
Which of the following enzymes recognizes a certain target sequence in the DNA and cuts it into two pieces?
Which of the following genetic engineering techniques can be used to customize an organism's genetic sequence by implementing specific alterations to its DNA?
Suppose you want to introduce a human DNA containing the gene of interest into a bacterial DNA. Which of the following vectors can be used in your experiment?
In creating a gene drive element through CRISPR-Cas, which component provides the required sequence specificity?
Gene therapy is the process by which an organism's genes are modified to treat a certain disease. The gene therapy product wherein circular DNA molecules are engineered genetically to introduce therapeutic genes in an organism's cell is called:
In the history of insulin production, insulin was harvested from bovine and swine. However, due to side effects, researchers considered experimenting with bacteria. They introduced functional human insulin genes into the bacteria creating a transgenic organism. Which of the following bacteria were used in this process?
Cloning refers to the process of producing an identical copy of a specific cell or organism. Which of the following statements about reproductive cloning is true?
A mouse has undergone genetic modification to express a foreign gene. What is a common method for creating transgenic mice?
"DNA editing" refers to the process of intentionally changing the genetic code of an organism. Which of the following is a revolutionary gene editing tool that allows scientists to modify the DNA sequence of a particular gene in a cell?
Which of the following is a group of overlapping fragments of DNA that collectively make up a single organism's whole genome?
The cell is exposed to an electric field, which creates temporary pores in the cell membrane, allowing the DNA to enter. This method of gene transfer is referred to as:
Which of the following is a process in which foreign genetic material is transferred into a bacterial cell, resulting in a change in its properties?
The same restriction enzymes are often used to cut both the plasmid DNA and the gene insert, which are then joined together with the help of an enzyme known as:
In molecular biology, HindIII is frequently employed for DNA cloning and other types of genetic engineering. It is naturally made by the bacterium:
Which of the following is a laboratory technique that involves using restriction enzymes to cut DNA at specific locations?
Restriction endonucleases are enzymes that recognize and cleave certain DNA sequences. Which of the following is a restriction site for EcoR1?
Sticky ends are created when restriction enzymes cut double-stranded DNA. What types of bonds do these enzymes digest?
Which of the following steps is involved in creating a Drosophila model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD)?
Several medical and industrial products are produced via chimeric gene fusion. Which of the following statements is correct regarding chimeric gene fusion:
What is the major challenge in gene therapy for diseases caused by recessive alleles?
How has the recent rapid advancement in DNA synthesis technology, allowing for the synthesis of sequences up to 10 kb, potentially impacted the gene-cloning approach?
What is the term used for cloning cDNA library in a plasmid vector in a way that ensures all the cDNA clones have the same orientation with respect to the plasmid sequences?
Which of the following reasons makes gene therapy for blood disorders relatively simpler compared to other genetic diseases?
Which of the following methods is commonly used for introducing a mutated DMD gene into mouse embryos to create a DMD mouse model in terms of efficiency and specificity?
Homologous recombinant transgenic mice are usually created using embryonic stem (ES) cells whereas homologous recombinant yeast is typically created through a process known as gene targeting. Which of the following statements best describes the difference between these processes?
We need to calculate the minimum length of a primer for amplifying a specific gene in the pea (Pisum sativum) plant, assuming a desired melting temperature of 60°C, a GC content of 50%, and an equal frequency of all bases in the plant's genome, which is about 4.45 billion base pairs. Which of the following formulas to calculate the minimum primer length is correct?
Which of the following choices provides the estimated number of AT base pairs in the human genome, assuming the length of the human genome is 6.4 x 109 base pairs with an average GC content of 40%?
How many fragments would be predicted to be generated by the complete digestion of the human genome with Sau3A, BamHI, EcoRI, and NotI enzymes combined?
Which gene in a pUC18 plasmid is responsible for the selection of bacterial colonies transformed with a pUC18 plasmid?
Paul Berg, a biochemist at Stanford, was one of the first to develop recombinant DNA technology. In his experimental design in 1974, Paul Berg cleaved (cut into fragments) the monkey virus SV40. He then cleaved the double helix of another virus; an antibacterial agent known as bacteriophage lambda. In the third step, he fastened DNA from the SV40 to DNA from the bacteriophage lambda. The final step involved placing the mutant genetic material into a laboratory strain of the E. coli bacterium. However, Berg did not complete his final step due to:
The disadvantages in using bacterial hosts to synthesize eukaryotic proteins is that:
A probe is a single-stranded DNA or RNA sequence used to search for its complementary sequence in a sample genome. Which of the following is exactly complementary to the gene of interest?
PCR is a method used to amplify DNA. If the number of double-stranded DNA pieces is doubled in each cycle, how many copies of the DNA sample are produced from one DNA template molecule in the PCR technique after 18 cycles?
A palindromic recognition sequence for a restriction enzyme is a sequence of nucleotides that is the same when read in either direction. Which of the following sequences is a palindromic sequence?
Direct gene transfer is a method of introducing recombinant DNA into the host cells. Which of the following methods is not an example of direct gene transfer?
A rare cutter enzyme is a restriction enzyme with a recognition sequence that occurs rarely in the genome. Which of the following statement is true regarding rare cutter enzymes?
A cloning vector is a genome that can accept the target DNA and increase the number of copies through its autonomous replication. Which of the following statements is false regarding BAC and YAC?
Once the transgenic DNA enters the nucleus, how can it be incorporated into the host's genome?
Restriction enzymes are proteins that cleave phosphodiester bonds of DNA molecules at specific sites called palindromic sequences. Which of the following statements about restriction enzymes is correct?
_________ is a technique used to explore gene function by removing a gene from an organism's DNA.
Which of the following is a vector that contains the F1 origin of replication of the F1 phage, and can be replicated in a cell like a plasmid?
What will the total number of cleavage sites in 38,400 bp long DNA which is digested by the enzyme AluI. The recognition sequence for AluI is AGCT. (Assume that all four nucleotides are present in equal proportions).
______________ is the molecule glue that is used in the cloning experiment to join two fragments of DNA to seal the gaps between them.
Plants generated by introducing foreign DNA into a plant cell and then regenerating another plant from that cell are called:
A 1500-bp cloned DNA segment was recovered from a vector, and its restriction map must be constructed in order to characterize this cloned segment. The cloned segment was digested with two restriction enzymes and then electrophoresed on agarose gel. The band sizes observed on the gel are as follows: Enzyme A: 450 bp, 1050 bp; Enzyme B: 200 bp, 1300 bp; Enzymes A and B: 200 bp, 250 bp, 1050 bp. Using this information, create a restriction map and then calculate the distance between the cutting sites of enzymes A and B (in bp) on the cloned DNA segment.
Which of the following terms is used to describe the phenomenon of non-specific amplification in multiplex PCR?
Polymerase chain reactions can be used to reveal differences (polymorphisms) among individuals by:
Northern blotting is a technique that is utilized to determine the size of a specific gene's mRNA transcripts. The relative transcriptional activity is measured through the difference in:
Genome editing methods (such as CRISPR-Cas) utilize ______ to create breaks in the genome, allowing scientists to remove, correct, or replace a defective gene.
Which of the following statements is true regarding the annealing temperature in PCR?
Identify the correct sequence of different steps of the polymerase chain reaction:
The temperature at which the primers bind to the DNA template is known as the "________."
Which of the following techniques may be used to identify transformed cells that have recombinant DNA?
Sanger technique is also called dideoxy chain-termination sequencing since it utilizes modified deoxyribonucleotides called dideoxynucleotides. Why are dideoxynucleotides considered chain-termination nucleotides?
Which of the following claims concerning microsatellites is correct in the context of paternity testing?
According to the researchers, the first synthetic bacterial genome was produced at the J. Craig Venter Institute in 2010. The first ever synthetic life form was given the name _____.
Which of the following was the first genetically modified food crop that has been patented?