Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone-System

by Jason Amores Sumpter
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Okay, everyone, in this lesson, we're going to be talking about the Rinnan angiotensin al Dossary own system that is utilized to regulate your blood pressure and your blood volume. Okay, so the Renan Angiotensin al Dust Arone system has an incredibly long name, so we usually don't call it by that name. We usually call it the wrasse system or simply wrasse. And like I said, it's going to control your blood volume. And it's going to do this by increasing your salt and water re absorption inside of your kidneys. But it's not that simple. Based on its name, you guys can tell it has a lot of components, and it's gonna have many different hormones that work together to raise that blood pressure and that blood volume now the loss of blood pressure or blood volume could be caused by many things. It could be caused by severe dehydration where you don't have enough water in your blood. It could be caused by a blood loss. Something like that. You need to make more blood. You need to have more water in your blood. This system is going to help you do that. So the very first cells we're going to talk about are gonna be these Juckes, Tegla, Mary ular cells in the Jackson glamorous color apparatus. That word is always hard for me to say. So these jacks, Tegla Mary ular cells are found in the Judge Jackson GLA Mary Alert apparatus. And from now on, I'm simply going to call them J G Cells because that is a common, shortened version of their names, since it is kind of difficult to say and these J G cells are going to be found in the kidney, but specifically they're going to be found in the blood vessels of be kidney. And what these cells are going to recognize is there going to recognize whenever the blood pressure or the blood volume drops? So they're going to recognize when the blood volume actually drops and they're going to release this protein called Renan. Renan is going to be the beginning of this entire process. Renan is going to be made by these jag cells inside of the kidneys. And then Renan is going to go on and start signaling all of these other hormones to begin. So it says here that Renan leads to the cleavage of angiotensin two angiotensin two. And actually, it's not that simple. There's angiotensin, but it can also be called angiotensin neogen. It's just a longer name for the same thing. And what's going to happen? I'll draw it down here, And Geo Tin Sina Jen is going to interact with Renan so these two are going to interact. Now Renan is made by the kidney cells. Those J G cells, and angiotensin again, is going to be made by your liver cells. But angiotensin again can't do anything in the form that it's in. But once it reacts with Renan, it's going to be transformed into angio Tin Tsin. One angiotensin one is going to be an active form of this angiotensin hormone. Angiotensin again is an active until interacts with Renan, and what Renan's going to do is it's actually going to cut part of the angiotensin again, molecule off and create angiotensin again one and then angiotensin again. One flows through the blood vessels and it's going to be converted to angio Tenzin to This is going to be the one I want you guys to remember, because it's going to do a whole bunch of really interesting things. So how is angiotensin two actually made angiotensin two is going to be made by these very specific enzymes called angio tension converting Enzymes, or ACE. So eight is going to do this to angiotensin one, and it's going to change it to angiotensin two. That is going to be the magical form. Angiotensin two is going to do a lot of things. Angiotensin two raises blood, blood pressure by vase Oh, constriction. And it's also going to stimulate the adrenal cortex to release al dost Arone. Now angiotensin two can also directly affect the kidneys and tell the kidneys to re absorb more water. And it can also tell the pituitary gland to secrete a D. H, the anti diuretic hormone, which is also going to make you re absorb more water inside of your kidneys. Okay, so angiotensin two is going to tell the adrenal cortex to create al Dostie. Arone Al Dossary is going to be the other hormone that is in this system. Aldo Cerone does some interesting things. Al Dossari is going to stimulate the distal tubules in the collecting duct of the kidney to re absorb more salt, and you may be thinking well to increase blood volume. We don't want salt. We want water. But remember, the process of osmosis water is going to flow towards the area of higher solute concentration. So if inside of your body has a higher solute concentration, you're going to re absorb mawr of that water from your urine and you're not going to release as much water. So this is actually a good thing. So the a D h anti diuretic hormone is going to make you re absorb more water. The old Austrian hormone is going to make you re absorb more salts which will inevitably also make you re absorb more water. So as you guys can see here, it says water follows the re absorption of salt leading to the increase of blood volume and blood pressure. That is great. So let me just make a little arrow. So you guys know that I was talking about that down there, So this is going to increase the blood volume, but you may be thinking, Oh, it's going to increase the salinity of the blood as well. It's actually not because Aldo Austrian also causes that water to come in. So it's not too salty or anything like that. Now, I also want you guys to know that this whole system can be triggered by the sympathetic nervous system as well, in case there's an emergency. If you go into fight or flight syndrome or or response, you will also stimulate this particular pathway, but you're going to stimulate it through a different means. And it's going to be this pituitary hormone, a C T. H. And it's going to stimulate the production of Valdosta Rhone, which is going to increase your blood pressure. And you may be thinking, Why do you want high blood pressure whenever you're in a fight or flight system? Well, you want this because it allows all of your organs to get all the blood that they need because it's increasing. Blood volume is ensuring that all of your organs, your muscles, your lungs that help you get away from the threat have the blood supply that they need. So you need to re absorb as much water as possible to create that perfect high blood volume and blood pressure. Okay, everyone, but the majority of the time we're going to use the Renan angiotensin l'd Austrian system or rest for whenever we have low blood volume, for whatever reason and generally not in the sympathetic nervous system. So now I have this really neat diagram that I think it's really helpful. This is basically just diagramming all of the stuff I just told you. Okay. All right. So it doesn't fit all perfectly. I will get out of the way in the second. The only thing that's really being cut off are going to be the lungs and the top word up there. But I will explain that. So let me scroll up a little bit so you guys can see everything. Okay, so where does this whole process start? Remember, the whole process is going to start whenever those kidneys realized that the blood volume is not high enough. So that's gonna be right here. The decrease in renal perfusion or there's not enough blood in the kidneys is going to cause those J G cells to realize that there's low blood volume and they're going to create Renan. So this is going to be the very first step. So they're going to create Renan, and then it's going to go this way. Okay, everyone. So what does ran into after that? Remember, after this, Renan is going to interact with the angiotensin again hormone that is made by the liver. And once it interacts with the angiotensin again hormone, it's going to create angiotensin one. And this is the second step in the pathway. And then the ace enzyme is going to turn angiotensin one into angiotensin two. And here's the ace enzyme up here. So now we have angiotensin two, and this is going to be the third step in the process. And remember, I told you that angiotensin two is a really important molecule because it does all of these really crazy cool things. So let me go out of the pictures so you guys can see the rest of it so you guys can see the angiotensin two is going to do a lot of things. Remember I told you that it's going to be important because it's going to constrict the blood vessels, which you're going to physically increase the blood pressure of that individual because those blood vessels are smaller there, constricted the blood pressure is going to go up. And remember, I also told you that it's going to cause thesis accretions of the A. D H hormone from the pituitary gland. And this is the anti diuretic hormone, and this is going to cause the increased absorption off water in the kidneys. Okay, everyone. Now it's also going to do even more. It's going to cause out Dos Trone to be secreted from the kidneys as well. And what Aldo Austin is going to do is, it's going to cause those salts to be re absorbed, which you guys concedes going on right here. Thes salts are being re absorbed into the kidneys, which means the water will follow and be re absorbed as well. And Guy's Remember, I also told you that angiotensin two is important for your sympathetic nervous system. It's going to play an important role in keeping your blood pressure high during emergency situations to ensure that you have enough blood volume to stimulate your running away from whatever it might be. OK, guys, Now, once the blood volume has gone back to normal, what is going to happen once it's gone back to normal? You guys can actually see down here this red line. This red line down here is going to be a negative feedback. And so once the kidneys realized that there is enough blood volume that it is back to normal and enough water has been re absorbed, they're going to send this negative signal back to the J G cells to tell them to stop producing Renan, which will stop the process. Which means that angiotensin again will no longer be turned into angiotensin one and eventually into two. And Al Dossari own will not be secreted. So this is on Lee going to be used whenever you don't have enough blood volume or your blood pressure is too low or you're in an emergency situation. But when you're not and your blood volume is perfectly fine, your kidney is being told to not make the Renan Hormone. Okay, everyone, I hope that was helpful. I know that these particular pathways can be rough, but it is really, really interesting how all of these different hormones actually worked together to control your blood volume. Okay, everyone, let's go on to our next lesson.